Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 8.45.30

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः कृ॒न्तदिद्वि यो॒न्यं त्रि॒शोका॑य गि॒रिं पृ॒थुम् । गोभ्यो॑ गा॒तुं निरे॑तवे ॥
यः कृन्तदिद्वि योन्यं त्रिशोकाय गिरिं पृथुम् । गोभ्यो गातुं निरेतवे ॥
yaḥ kṛntad id vi yonyaṃ triśokāya girim pṛthum | gobhyo gātuṃ niretave ||

English translation:

“(Indra), who clove for Triśoka the broad womb-like cloud, (and made) a path for the cows to issueforth?”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The cows: go = water, rain


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): triśokaḥ kāṇvaḥ [triśoka kāṇva];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdgāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः । कृ॒न्तत् । इत् । वि । यो॒न्यम् । त्रि॒ऽशोका॑य । गि॒रिम् । पृ॒थुम् । गोऽभ्यः॑ । गा॒तुम् । निःऽए॑तवे ॥
यः । कृन्तत् । इत् । वि । योन्यम् । त्रिशोकाय । गिरिम् । पृथुम् । गोभ्यः । गातुम् । निःएतवे ॥
yaḥ | kṛntat | it | vi | yonyam | tri-śokāya | girim | pṛthum | go--bhyaḥ | gātum | niḥ-etave

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.45.30 English analysis of grammar]

yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

kṛntad < kṛntat < kṛt

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“cut; cut; cut off; fell; cut.”



“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”



“apart; away; away.”

yonyaṃ < yonyam < yonya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

triśokāya < triśoka

[noun], dative, singular, masculine


girim < giri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“mountain; adri; rock; giri [word]; hill; śilājatu.”

pṛthum < pṛthu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“broad; wide; great; flat; pṛthu [word]; far.”

gobhyo < gobhyaḥ < go

[noun], dative, plural, masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

gātuṃ < gātum < gātu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“path; way.”

niretave < niri < √i

[verb noun]

“issue; exit.”

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