Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 8.2.12

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

हृ॒त्सु पी॒तासो॑ युध्यन्ते दु॒र्मदा॑सो॒ न सुरा॑याम् । ऊध॒र्न न॒ग्ना ज॑रन्ते ॥
हृत्सु पीतासो युध्यन्ते दुर्मदासो न सुरायाम् । ऊधर्न नग्ना जरन्ते ॥
hṛtsu pītāso yudhyante durmadāso na surāyām | ūdhar na nagnā jarante ||

English translation:

“The potations (of Soma) contend in your interior (for your exhilaration) like the inebriation caused bywine; your worshippers praise you (filled full of Soma) like the udder (of a cow with milk).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Like the inebriatioṅdurmadāso na surāyām, like bad intoxications, wine, being drunk. This is an allusion to the fermented winesin use, perhaps, according to Manu, an inferior sort of spirit; duṣṭamadā yathā pa-tāram mādayantitadvatvām mādayitum parasparam yudhyanta ityarthaḥ; your worshippers praise you: ūdhar na nagnājarante: the praisers praise like an udder;

Nagna = naked; stotā, a praiser, one who does not neglect orabandon the verses of the Veda, chandāṃsi na jahati


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): medhātithiḥ kāṇvaḥ priyamedhaścāṅgirasaḥ [medhātithi kāṇva priyamedhaścāṅgirasa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): ārṣīgāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

हृ॒त्ऽसु । पी॒तासः॑ । यु॒ध्य॒न्ते॒ । दुः॒ऽमदा॑सः । न । सुरा॑याम् । ऊधः॑ । न । न॒ग्नाः । ज॒र॒न्ते॒ ॥
हृत्सु । पीतासः । युध्यन्ते । दुःमदासः । न । सुरायाम् । ऊधः । न । नग्नाः । जरन्ते ॥
hṛt-su | pītāsaḥ | yudhyante | duḥ-madāsaḥ | na | surāyām | ūdhaḥ | na | nagnāḥ | jarante

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 8.2.12 English analysis of grammar]

hṛtsu < hṛd

[noun], locative, plural

“heart; heart; mind; breast; hṛd [word].”

pītāso < pītāsaḥ <

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“drink; gulp; soak; drink; suck; inhale.”

yudhyante < yudh

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“fight; overcome.”

durmadāso < durmadāsaḥ < durmada

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“delirious; brainsick; fierce; crazy.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

surāyām < surā

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“alcohol; surā; surā; surā [word]; Devi; wine; tavern.”

ūdhar < ūdhas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“udder; ūdhas [word]; night.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

nagnā < nagnāḥ < nagna

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“bare; nagna [word].”

jarante < jṛ

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“jṛ; digest; age; cook; boil down; decay; decay; ripen.”

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