Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 7.48.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ते चि॒द्धि पू॒र्वीर॒भि सन्ति॑ शा॒सा विश्वाँ॑ अ॒र्य उ॑प॒रता॑ति वन्वन् । इन्द्रो॒ विभ्वाँ॑ ऋभु॒क्षा वाजो॑ अ॒र्यः शत्रो॑र्मिथ॒त्या कृ॑णव॒न्वि नृ॒म्णम् ॥
ते चिद्धि पूर्वीरभि सन्ति शासा विश्वाँ अर्य उपरताति वन्वन् । इन्द्रो विभ्वाँ ऋभुक्षा वाजो अर्यः शत्रोर्मिथत्या कृणवन्वि नृम्णम् ॥
te cid dhi pūrvīr abhi santi śāsā viśvām̐ arya uparatāti vanvan | indro vibhvām̐ ṛbhukṣā vājo aryaḥ śatror mithatyā kṛṇavan vi nṛmṇam ||

English translation:

“They verily, (Indra and Ṛbhus), overcome multitudes by their prowess; they overcome all enemies inthe missile conflict; may Indra, Vibhvan, Ṛbhukṣin and Vāja, the subduers of foes, annihilate by their wrath thestrength of the enemy.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Missile: uparatāti: upara = upala, a stone; upalaiḥ pāṣāṇasadṛśair āyudhaitāyate yuddham, war that is waged with weapons like stones, is uparatati


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vasiṣṭhaḥ [vasiṣṭha];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): ṛbhavaḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ते । चि॒त् । हि । पू॒र्वीः । अ॒भि । सन्ति॑ । शा॒सा । विश्वान् । अ॒र्यः । उ॒प॒रऽता॑ति । व॒न्व॒न् । इन्द्रः॑ । विऽभ्वा॑ । ऋ॒भु॒क्षाः । वाजः॑ । अ॒र्यः । शत्रोः॑ । मि॒थ॒त्या । कृ॒ण॒व॒न् । वि । नृ॒म्णम् ॥
ते । चित् । हि । पूर्वीः । अभि । सन्ति । शासा । विश्वान् । अर्यः । उपरताति । वन्वन् । इन्द्रः । विभ्वा । ऋभुक्षाः । वाजः । अर्यः । शत्रोः । मिथत्या । कृणवन् । वि । नृम्णम् ॥
te | cit | hi | pūrvīḥ | abhi | santi | śāsā | viśvān | aryaḥ | upara-tāti | vanvan | indraḥ | vi-bhvā | ṛbhukṣāḥ | vājaḥ | aryaḥ | śatroḥ | mithatyā | kṛṇavan | vi | nṛmṇam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 7.48.3 English analysis of grammar]

te < tad

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

ciddhi < cit


“even; indeed.”

ciddhi < hi


“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

pūrvīr < pūrvīḥ < puru

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“many; much(a); very.”



“towards; on.”

santi < as

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

śāsā < śās

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“śās; command; ruler; commander.”

viśvāṃ < viśvān < viśva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

arya < aryaḥ < ari

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine



vanvan < van

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

“obtain; gain; desire; get; like; love; overcome.”

indro < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

vibhvāṃ < vibhvā < vibhvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


ṛbhukṣā < ṛbhukṣāḥ < ṛbhukṣan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


vājo < vājaḥ < vāja

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“prize; Vāja; reward; reward; Ribhus; vigor; strength; contest.”

aryaḥ < ari

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

śatror < śatroḥ < śatru

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“enemy; foe; enemy; Asura.”



kṛṇavan < kṛ

[verb], plural, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”



“apart; away; away.”

nṛmṇam < nṛmṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“manhood; power.”

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