Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 7.28.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

हवं॑ त इन्द्र महि॒मा व्या॑न॒ड्ब्रह्म॒ यत्पासि॑ शवसि॒न्नृषी॑णाम् । आ यद्वज्रं॑ दधि॒षे हस्त॑ उग्र घो॒रः सन्क्रत्वा॑ जनिष्ठा॒ अषा॑ळ्हः ॥
हवं त इन्द्र महिमा व्यानड्ब्रह्म यत्पासि शवसिन्नृषीणाम् । आ यद्वज्रं दधिषे हस्त उग्र घोरः सन्क्रत्वा जनिष्ठा अषाळ्हः ॥
havaṃ ta indra mahimā vy ānaḍ brahma yat pāsi śavasinn ṛṣīṇām | ā yad vajraṃ dadhiṣe hasta ugra ghoraḥ san kratvā janiṣṭhā aṣāḻhaḥ ||

English translation:

“Endowed with strength, since you grant the prayers of the Ṛṣis, let your greatness, Indra, extend tothine invoker; and as, fierce deity, you hold the thunderbolt in your hand, then formidable by your exploits youhave become invincible.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vasiṣṭhaḥ [vasiṣṭha];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

हव॑म् । ते॒ । इ॒न्द्र॒ । म॒हि॒मा । वि । आ॒न॒ट् । ब्रह्म॑ । यत् । पासि॑ । श॒व॒सि॒न् । ऋषी॑णाम् । आ । यत् । वज्र॑म् । द॒धि॒षे । हस्ते॑ । उ॒ग्र॒ । घो॒रः । सन् । क्रत्वा॑ । ज॒नि॒ष्ठाः॒ । अषा॑ळ्हः ॥
हवम् । ते । इन्द्र । महिमा । वि । आनट् । ब्रह्म । यत् । पासि । शवसिन् । ऋषीणाम् । आ । यत् । वज्रम् । दधिषे । हस्ते । उग्र । घोरः । सन् । क्रत्वा । जनिष्ठाः । अषाळ्हः ॥
havam | te | indra | mahimā | vi | ānaṭ | brahma | yat | pāsi | śavasin | ṛṣīṇām | ā | yat | vajram | dadhiṣe | haste | ugra | ghoraḥ | san | kratvā | janiṣṭhāḥ | aṣāḷhaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 7.28.2 English analysis of grammar]

havaṃ < havam < hava

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


ta < te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular



[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

mahimā < mahiman

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“greatness; power; mahiman.”

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”

ānaḍ < ānaṭ < naś

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“reach; achieve; enter (a state); reach.”

brahma < brahman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“brahman; mantra; prayer; spell; Veda; Brahmin; sacred text; final emancipation; hymn; brahman [word]; Brāhmaṇa; study.”

yat < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

pāsi <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“protect; govern.”

śavasinn < śavasin

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine


ṛṣīṇām < ṛṣi

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“Ṛṣi; spiritual teacher; ascetic; Mantra.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

vajraṃ < vajram < vajra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“vajra; Vajra; vajra; vajra; lightning; abhra; vajramūṣā; diamond; vajra [word]; vajrakapāṭa; vajra; vaikrānta.”

dadhiṣe < dhā

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

hasta < haste < hasta

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“hand; hand; proboscis; hasta [word]; autograph.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“powerful; awful; dangerous; intense; mighty; potent; colicky; atrocious.”

ghoraḥ < ghora

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“awful; dangerous; terrific; intense; dreadful.”

san < as

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

kratvā < kratu

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

janiṣṭhā < janiṣṭhāḥ < jan

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

aṣāᄆhaḥ < aṣāḍhaḥ < aṣāḍha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


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