Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.65.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒षा स्या नो॑ दुहि॒ता दि॑वो॒जाः क्षि॒तीरु॒च्छन्ती॒ मानु॑षीरजीगः । या भा॒नुना॒ रुश॑ता रा॒म्यास्वज्ञा॑यि ति॒रस्तम॑सश्चिद॒क्तून् ॥
एषा स्या नो दुहिता दिवोजाः क्षितीरुच्छन्ती मानुषीरजीगः । या भानुना रुशता राम्यास्वज्ञायि तिरस्तमसश्चिदक्तून् ॥
eṣā syā no duhitā divojāḥ kṣitīr ucchantī mānuṣīr ajīgaḥ | yā bhānunā ruśatā rāmyāsv ajñāyi tiras tamasaś cid aktūn ||

English translation:

“This heaven-born daughter (of the sky), driving away the darkness for us, makes visible human beings; she who with bright lustre is perceived dissipating the glooms, and (extinguishing) the plural nets (shining) in the nights.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Makes visible: udgirati mānuṣīḥ prajāḥ = vomits them, i.e., brings them up out of darkness into light; in the nights: rāmyāsu = yāmyāsu, rātriṣu


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): uṣāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhurikpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒षा । स्या । नः॒ । दु॒हि॒ता । दि॒वः॒ऽजाः । क्षि॒तीः । उ॒च्छन्ती॑ । मानु॑षीः । अ॒जी॒ग॒रिति॑ । या । भा॒नुना॑ । रुश॑ता । रा॒म्यासु॑ । अज्ञा॑यि । ति॒रः । तम॑सः । चि॒त् । अ॒क्तून् ॥
एषा । स्या । नः । दुहिता । दिवःजाः । क्षितीः । उच्छन्ती । मानुषीः । अजीगरिति । या । भानुना । रुशता । राम्यासु । अज्ञायि । तिरः । तमसः । चित् । अक्तून् ॥
eṣā | syā | naḥ | duhitā | divaḥ-jāḥ | kṣitīḥ | ucchantī | mānuṣīḥ | ajīgariti | yā | bhānunā | ruśatā | rāmyāsu | ajñāyi | tiraḥ | tamasaḥ | cit | aktūn

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.65.1 English analysis of grammar]

eṣā < etad

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); etad [word].”

syā < tya

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine


no < naḥ < mad

[noun], dative, plural

“I; mine.”

duhitā < duhitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“daughter; duhitṛ [word].”

divojāḥ < divojā

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

kṣitīr < kṣitīḥ < kṣiti

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī; people; dwelling; battlefield; Earth; estate; colony; house.”

ucchantī < vas

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“dawn; shine.”

mānuṣīr < mānuṣīḥ < mānuṣa

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine


ajīgaḥ < jāgṛ

[verb], singular, Redupl. Aorist (Ind.)

“wake; watch; awaken; wake up; oversee.”

< yad

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

bhānunā < bhānu

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“sun; Surya; Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sunbeam; beam; luminosity; copper; light; twelve; appearance; Bhānu; flare.”

ruśatā < ruśat

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“white; bright; bright.”

rāmyāsv < rāmyāsu < rāmyā

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“night; night.”

ajñāyi < jñā

[verb], singular, Aorist passive

“know; diagnose; perceive; know; come to know; notice; determine; think of; find; learn; perceive; identify; recognize; understand; know; learn; ascertain; detect; deem.”



“tiras [word]; away; secretly.”

tamasaś < tamasaḥ < tamas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

aktūn < aktu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“night; dark; beam.”

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