Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.48.21

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स॒द्यश्चि॒द्यस्य॑ चर्कृ॒तिः परि॒ द्यां दे॒वो नैति॒ सूर्य॑: । त्वे॒षं शवो॑ दधिरे॒ नाम॑ य॒ज्ञियं॑ म॒रुतो॑ वृत्र॒हं शवो॒ ज्येष्ठं॑ वृत्र॒हं शव॑: ॥
सद्यश्चिद्यस्य चर्कृतिः परि द्यां देवो नैति सूर्यः । त्वेषं शवो दधिरे नाम यज्ञियं मरुतो वृत्रहं शवो ज्येष्ठं वृत्रहं शवः ॥
sadyaś cid yasya carkṛtiḥ pari dyāṃ devo naiti sūryaḥ | tveṣaṃ śavo dadhire nāma yajñiyam maruto vṛtrahaṃ śavo jyeṣṭhaṃ vṛtrahaṃ śavaḥ ||

English translation:

“Whose functions spread quickly round the heavens, like (the light of) the divine sun, since the maruts possess brillian, foe-humiliating, and adorable foe-destroying strength, most excellent foe-destroying strength.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): marūtaḥ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स॒द्यः । चि॒त् । यस्य॑ । च॒र्कृ॒तिः । परि॑ । द्याम् । दे॒वः । न । एति॑ । सूर्यः॑ । त्वे॒षम् । शवः॑ । द॒धि॒रे॒ । नाम॑ । य॒ज्ञिय॑म् । म॒रुतः॑ । वृ॒त्र॒ऽहम् । शवः॑ । ज्येष्ठ॑म् । वृ॒त्र॒ऽहम् । शवः॑ ॥
सद्यः । चित् । यस्य । चर्कृतिः । परि । द्याम् । देवः । न । एति । सूर्यः । त्वेषम् । शवः । दधिरे । नाम । यज्ञियम् । मरुतः । वृत्रहम् । शवः । ज्येष्ठम् । वृत्रहम् । शवः ॥
sadyaḥ | cit | yasya | carkṛtiḥ | pari | dyām | devaḥ | na | eti | sūryaḥ | tveṣam | śavaḥ | dadhire | nāma | yajñiyam | marutaḥ | vṛtra-ham | śavaḥ | jyeṣṭham | vṛtra-ham | śavaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.48.21 English analysis of grammar]

sadyaś < sadyas


“immediately; just; daily; sadyas [word].”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

yasya < yad

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

carkṛtiḥ < carkṛti

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine



“from; about; around.”

dyāṃ < dyām < div

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

devo < devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

naiti < < na


“not; like; no; na [word].”

naiti < eti < i

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

sūryaḥ < sūrya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“sun; Surya; sūrya [word]; right nostril; twelve; Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sūryakānta; sunlight; best.”

tveṣaṃ < tveṣam < tveṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“awful; brilliant; aglitter(p); bright.”

śavo < śavaḥ < śavas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“strength; power; superiority.”

dadhire < dhā

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

nāma < nāman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“name; appellation; nāman [word]; nāmakaraṇa; surname; noun; word.”

yajñiyam < yajñiya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“sacrificial; divine; devoted.”

maruto < marutaḥ < marut

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Marut; vāta; wind; Vayu.”

vṛtrahaṃ < vṛtraham < vṛtraha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

śavo < śavaḥ < śavas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“strength; power; superiority.”

jyeṣṭhaṃ < jyeṣṭham < jyeṣṭha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“firstborn; best; first; excellent; highest; jyeṣṭha [word].”

vṛtrahaṃ < vṛtraham < vṛtraha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

śavaḥ < śavas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“strength; power; superiority.”

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