Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.48.19

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प॒रो हि मर्त्यै॒रसि॑ स॒मो दे॒वैरु॒त श्रि॒या । अ॒भि ख्य॑: पूष॒न्पृत॑नासु न॒स्त्वमवा॑ नू॒नं यथा॑ पु॒रा ॥
परो हि मर्त्यैरसि समो देवैरुत श्रिया । अभि ख्यः पूषन्पृतनासु नस्त्वमवा नूनं यथा पुरा ॥
paro hi martyair asi samo devair uta śriyā | abhi khyaḥ pūṣan pṛtanāsu nas tvam avā nūnaṃ yathā purā ||

English translation:

“Supreme are you above mortals; equal in glory are you to the gods; therefore, Pūṣan, regard us (favourably) in battles; defend us at present as (you have defended) those of old.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pūṣā ;
Chandas (meter): virāḍabṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प॒रः । हि । मर्त्यैः॑ । असि॑ । स॒मः । दे॒वैः । उ॒त । श्रि॒या । अ॒भि । ख्यः॒ । पू॒ष॒न् । पृत॑नासु । नः॒ । त्वम् । अव॑ । नू॒नम् । यथा॑ । पु॒रा ॥
परः । हि । मर्त्यैः । असि । समः । देवैः । उत । श्रिया । अभि । ख्यः । पूषन् । पृतनासु । नः । त्वम् । अव । नूनम् । यथा । पुरा ॥
paraḥ | hi | martyaiḥ | asi | samaḥ | devaiḥ | uta | śriyā | abhi | khyaḥ | pūṣan | pṛtanāsu | naḥ | tvam | ava | nūnam | yathā | purā

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.48.19 English analysis of grammar]

paro < paraḥ < para

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“best; other; following; devoted(p); extreme; highest; otherwordly; better; hostile; maximal; distant; another(a); para [word]; upper; concluding; foreign; earlier; worse; longer; finest; excessive.”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

martyair < martyaiḥ < martya

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine


asi < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

samo < samaḥ < sama

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“like; like; alike(p); level; symmetrical; balanced; average; same; regular; impartial; imperturbable; even; sama [word]; every(a); accurate; identical; fair; equal; synonymous; changeless; whole; exact; calm; straight; even; wide.”

devair < devaiḥ < deva

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

śriyā < śrī

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“mister; Ms.; Lakshmi; good fortune; well-being; magnificence; glory; beauty; Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; dignity; power; śrī [word]; śrī; prosperity; auspiciousness.”



“towards; on.”

khyaḥ < khyā

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“name; describe; call; enumerate; watch; know.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Pushan; pūṣan [word]; sun.”

pṛtanāsu < pṛtanā

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“army; battle; pṛtanā [word]; pṛtanā.”

nas < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


avā < ava < av

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

nūnaṃ < nūnam


“now; surely; immediately; just.”



“equally; as; so that; like; how; yathā [word]; that; wherein.”



“once; earlier; first; purā [indecl.].”

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