Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.48.18

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दृते॑रिव तेऽवृ॒कम॑स्तु स॒ख्यम् । अच्छि॑द्रस्य दध॒न्वत॒: सुपू॑र्णस्य दध॒न्वत॑: ॥
दृतेरिव तेऽवृकमस्तु सख्यम् । अच्छिद्रस्य दधन्वतः सुपूर्णस्य दधन्वतः ॥
dṛter iva te 'vṛkam astu sakhyam | acchidrasya dadhanvataḥ supūrṇasya dadhanvataḥ ||

English translation:

“May your friendship be unbroken, like (the surface) of a skin without a flaw, containing curds.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Skin containing curds: said to be always carried in Pūṣan's chariot


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pūṣā ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛduṣṇik ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

दृतेः॑ऽइव । ते । अ॒वृ॒कम् । अ॒स्तु॒ । स॒ख्यम् । अच्छि॑द्रस्य । द॒ध॒न्ऽवतः॑ । सुऽपू॑र्णस्य । द॒ध॒न्ऽवतः॑ ॥
दृतेःइव । ते । अवृकम् । अस्तु । सख्यम् । अच्छिद्रस्य । दधन्वतः । सुपूर्णस्य । दधन्वतः ॥
dṛteḥ-iva | te | avṛkam | astu | sakhyam | acchidrasya | dadhan-vataḥ | su-pūrṇasya | dadhan-vataḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.48.18 English analysis of grammar]

dṛter < dṛteḥ < dṛti

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“hose; dṛti [word]; hide; bladder.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


'vṛkam < avṛkam < avṛka

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“protective; safe.”

astu < as

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

sakhyam < sakhya

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“friendship; aid; company.”

acchidrasya < acchidra

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“uninjured; unbroken.”

dadhanvataḥ < dadhanvat

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

supūrṇasya < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

supūrṇasya < pūrṇasya < pṛ

[verb noun], genitive, singular

“fill; elapse; pull back; fill; satisfy; bestow; meet; stuff; load; mix; complete.”

dadhanvataḥ < dadhanvat

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

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