Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.48.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒हो दे॒वान्यज॑सि॒ यक्ष्या॑नु॒षक्तव॒ क्रत्वो॒त दं॒सना॑ । अ॒र्वाच॑: सीं कृणुह्य॒ग्नेऽव॑से॒ रास्व॒ वाजो॒त वं॑स्व ॥
महो देवान्यजसि यक्ष्यानुषक्तव क्रत्वोत दंसना । अर्वाचः सीं कृणुह्यग्नेऽवसे रास्व वाजोत वंस्व ॥
maho devān yajasi yakṣy ānuṣak tava kratvota daṃsanā | arvācaḥ sīṃ kṛṇuhy agne 'vase rāsva vājota vaṃsva ||

English translation:

“You sacrifice to the mighty gods; sacrifice (for us) continually, for (sacrifice is perfected) by your wisdom and your acts; bring them down, Agni, for our salvation; present (to them) the sacrificial food, partake of it yourself.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒हः । दे॒वान् । यज॑सि । यक्षि॑ । आ॒नु॒षक् । तव॑ । क्रत्वा॑ । उ॒त । दं॒सना॑ । अ॒र्वाचः॑ । सी॒म् । कृ॒णु॒हि॒ । अ॒ग्ने॒ । अव॑से । रास्व॑ । वाजा॑ । उ॒त । वं॒स्व॒ ॥
महः । देवान् । यजसि । यक्षि । आनुषक् । तव । क्रत्वा । उत । दंसना । अर्वाचः । सीम् । कृणुहि । अग्ने । अवसे । रास्व । वाजा । उत । वंस्व ॥
mahaḥ | devān | yajasi | yakṣi | ānuṣak | tava | kratvā | uta | daṃsanā | arvācaḥ | sīm | kṛṇuhi | agne | avase | rāsva | vājā | uta | vaṃsva

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.48.4 English analysis of grammar]

maho < mahaḥ < mah

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“great; great; distinguished; much(a); adult; long; high.”

devān < deva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

yajasi < yaj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”

yakṣy < yakṣi < yaj

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”



“correctly; in sequence; punctually.”

tava < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


kratvota < kratvā < kratu

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

kratvota < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”


[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

“wonder; power.”

arvācaḥ < arvāñc

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“approaching; facing; less.”

sīṃ < sīm


kṛṇuhy < kṛṇuhi < kṛ

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

'vase < avase < av

[verb noun]

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

rāsva <

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“give; impart.”

vājota < vājā < vāja

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“prize; Vāja; reward; reward; Ribhus; vigor; strength; contest.”

vājota < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

vaṃsva < van

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“obtain; gain; desire; get; like; love; overcome.”

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