Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.47.15

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

क ईं॑ स्तव॒त्कः पृ॑णा॒त्को य॑जाते॒ यदु॒ग्रमिन्म॒घवा॑ वि॒श्वहावे॑त् । पादा॑विव प्र॒हर॑न्न॒न्यम॑न्यं कृ॒णोति॒ पूर्व॒मप॑रं॒ शची॑भिः ॥
क ईं स्तवत्कः पृणात्को यजाते यदुग्रमिन्मघवा विश्वहावेत् । पादाविव प्रहरन्नन्यमन्यं कृणोति पूर्वमपरं शचीभिः ॥
ka īṃ stavat kaḥ pṛṇāt ko yajāte yad ugram in maghavā viśvahāvet | pādāv iva praharann anyam-anyaṃ kṛṇoti pūrvam aparaṃ śacībhiḥ ||

English translation:

“Who may (adequately) praise him? Who may satisfy him? Who offer worthy adoration? Since Maghava is daily conscious of his own terrible (power); by his acts he makes first one and then the other precede and follow, as (a man) throws out his feet (alternately in walking).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Make first one and then: that is, Indra, at his plural asure, makes the first of his worshippers the last, and the last the first


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gargaḥ [garga];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

कः । ई॒म् । स्त॒व॒त् । कः । पृ॒णा॒त् । कः । य॒जा॒ते॒ । यत् । उ॒ग्रम् । इत् । म॒घऽवा॑ । वि॒श्वहा । अवे॑त् । पादौ॑ऽइव । प्र॒ऽहर॑न् । अ॒न्यम्ऽअ॑न्यम् । कृ॒णोति॑ । पूर्व॑म् । अप॑रम् । शची॑भिः ॥
कः । ईम् । स्तवत् । कः । पृणात् । कः । यजाते । यत् । उग्रम् । इत् । मघवा । विश्वहा । अवेत् । पादौइव । प्रहरन् । अन्यम्अन्यम् । कृणोति । पूर्वम् । अपरम् । शचीभिः ॥
kaḥ | īm | stavat | kaḥ | pṛṇāt | kaḥ | yajāte | yat | ugram | it | magha-vā | viśvahā | avet | pādau-iva | pra-haran | anyam-anyam | kṛṇoti | pūrvam | aparam | śacībhiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.47.15 English analysis of grammar]

ka < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

īṃ < īm < īṃ


stavat < stu

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“laud; praise; declare; stu.”

kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

pṛṇāt < pṛ

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“fill; elapse; pull back; fill; satisfy; bestow; meet; stuff; load; mix; complete.”

ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

yajāte < yaj

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”

yad < yat


“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

ugram < ugra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“powerful; awful; dangerous; intense; mighty; potent; colicky; atrocious.”

in < id


“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

maghavā < maghavan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; maghavan [word].”

viśvahāvet < viśvahā


viśvahāvet < avet < av

[verb], singular, Present optative

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

pādāv < pādau < pāda

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“foot; one-fourth; beam; pāda; foot; foundation; pāda [word]; leg; leg; animal foot; step; foot; footfall; verse.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

praharann < praharan < prahṛ < √hṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“fight; attack; strike.”

anyam < anya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

anyaṃ < anyam < anya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

kṛṇoti < kṛ

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

pūrvam < pūrva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“aforesaid(a); antecedent; previous(a); first; eastern; former(a); pūrva [word]; age-old; anterior; bygone; fore(a); predictive; firstborn; easterly; instrumental.”

aparaṃ < aparam < apara

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“other; another(a); following; western; future; apara [word]; elder; remaining; some(a); later(a); back(a).”

śacībhiḥ < śacī

[noun], instrumental, plural, feminine

“Śacī; power; dexterity; ability; aid.”

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