Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.44.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः श॒ग्मस्तु॑विशग्म ते रा॒यो दा॒मा म॑ती॒नाम् । सोम॑: सु॒तः स इ॑न्द्र॒ तेऽस्ति॑ स्वधापते॒ मद॑: ॥
यः शग्मस्तुविशग्म ते रायो दामा मतीनाम् । सोमः सुतः स इन्द्र तेऽस्ति स्वधापते मदः ॥
yaḥ śagmas tuviśagma te rāyo dāmā matīnām | somaḥ sutaḥ sa indra te 'sti svadhāpate madaḥ ||

English translation:

“The Soma, possessor of felicity, which gives you delight, and which is the bestower of riches on your votaries, is poured out; it is your exhilaration, Indra, lord of the offering.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śaṃyurbārhaspatyaḥ [śaṃyurbārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): svarāḍuṣnik ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः । श॒ग्मः । तु॒वि॒ऽश॒ग्म॒ । ते॒ । रा॒यः । दा॒मा । म॒ती॒नाम् । सोमः॑ । सु॒तः । सः । इ॒न्द्र॒ । ते॒ । अस्ति॑ । स्व॒धा॒ऽप॒ते॒ मदः॑ ॥
यः । शग्मः । तुविशग्म । ते । रायः । दामा । मतीनाम् । सोमः । सुतः । सः । इन्द्र । ते । अस्ति । स्वधापते मदः ॥
yaḥ | śagmaḥ | tuvi-śagma | te | rāyaḥ | dāmā | matīnām | somaḥ | sutaḥ | saḥ | indra | te | asti | svadhāpatemadaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.44.2 English analysis of grammar]

yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

śagmas < śagmaḥ < śagma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“powerful; reliable; competent.”

tuviśagma < tuvi


“mighty; very; diverse; much(a); many.”

tuviśagma < śagma

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“powerful; reliable; competent.”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular


rāyo < rāyaḥ < rai

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“wealth; possession; rai [word]; gold.”

dāmā < dāman

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

matīnām < mati

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“intelligence; decision; mind; hymn; purpose; idea; opinion; belief; desire; wish; conviction; plan; devotion.”

somaḥ < soma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

sutaḥ < su

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“press out; su.”

sa < saḥ < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


'sti < asti < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

svadhāpate < svadhā

[noun], feminine

“free will; offering; libation; nature; svadhā [word]; comfort; power.”

svadhāpate < pate < pati

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“husband; overlord; king; deity; īśvara; ruler; pati [word]; commanding officer; leader; owner; mayor; lord.”

madaḥ < mada

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“drunkenness; mada; estrus; excitement; sexual arousal; alcohol; musth; mad; mada; ecstasy; pride; drink; joy; arrogance; vivification.”

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