Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.40.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इन्द्र॒ पिब॒ तुभ्यं॑ सु॒तो मदा॒याव॑ स्य॒ हरी॒ वि मु॑चा॒ सखा॑या । उ॒त प्र गा॑य ग॒ण आ नि॒षद्याथा॑ य॒ज्ञाय॑ गृण॒ते वयो॑ धाः ॥
इन्द्र पिब तुभ्यं सुतो मदायाव स्य हरी वि मुचा सखाया । उत प्र गाय गण आ निषद्याथा यज्ञाय गृणते वयो धाः ॥
indra piba tubhyaṃ suto madāyāva sya harī vi mucā sakhāyā | uta pra gāya gaṇa ā niṣadyāthā yajñāya gṛṇate vayo dhāḥ ||

English translation:

“Drink, Indra, (the Soma) that is effused for your exhilaration; stop your friendly steeds; let them loose; sitting in our society, respond to our hymns; give food to him who lauds and worships you.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Sitting in our society: uta pra gāya gaṇe ā niṣadya: pragāya = asmābhiḥ kṛtam stotram upaślokaya, return verses to the praise made by us


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इन्द्र॑ । पिब॑ । तुभ्य॑म् । सु॒तः । मदा॑य । अव॑ । स्य॒ । हरी॒ इति॑ । वि । मु॒च॒ । सखा॑या । उ॒त । प्र । गा॒य॒ । ग॒णे । आ । नि॒ऽसद्य । अथ॑ । य॒ज्ञाय॑ । गृ॒ण॒ते । वयः॑ । धाः॒ ॥
इन्द्र । पिब । तुभ्यम् । सुतः । मदाय । अव । स्य । हरी इति । वि । मुच । सखाया । उत । प्र । गाय । गणे । आ । निसद्य । अथ । यज्ञाय । गृणते । वयः । धाः ॥
indra | piba | tubhyam | sutaḥ | madāya | ava | sya | harī iti | vi | muca | sakhāyā | uta | pra | gāya | gaṇe | ā | ni-sadya | atha | yajñāya | gṛṇate | vayaḥ | dhāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.40.1 English analysis of grammar]


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

piba <

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“drink; gulp; soak; drink; suck; inhale.”

tubhyaṃ < tubhyam < tvad

[noun], dative, singular


suto < sutaḥ < su

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“press out; su.”

madāyāva < madāya < mada

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“drunkenness; mada; estrus; excitement; sexual arousal; alcohol; musth; mad; mada; ecstasy; pride; drink; joy; arrogance; vivification.”

madāyāva < ava



sya <

[verb], singular, Present imperative


harī < hari

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“Vishnu; monkey; Krishna; horse; lion; Indra; Hari; Surya; Hari; haritāla; Hari; snake; frog.”



“apart; away; away.”

mucā < muca < muc

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“liberate; emit; get rid of; shoot; release; put; tousle; secrete; fill into; shoot; spill; lose; ejaculate; exclude; free; remove; loosen; let go of; add; shed; want; save; defecate; heal; fart; open; abandon; discard; precipitate; reject; lay; unleash; exhale; discharge.”

sakhāyā < sakhi

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”



“towards; ahead.”

gāya <

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“sing; praise; jap; recite; describe.”

gaṇa < gaṇe < gaṇa

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“group; varga; troop; troop; battalion; flock; herd; gaṇa [word]; corporation; gaṇa; herd; sect; swarm; set; party; gaṇa; series; Ganesa; flight.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

niṣadyāthā < niṣadyā < niṣad < √sad

[verb noun]

“sit down; sit; put.”

niṣadyāthā < athā < atha


“now; then; furthermore; now; then.”

yajñāya < yajña

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“yajña; religious ceremony; Vishnu; yajña [word]; Yajña; Shiva.”

gṛṇate < gṛ

[verb noun], dative, singular


vayo < vayaḥ < vayas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“age; vigor; old age; strength; vayas [word]; aging; power; youth; food.”

dhāḥ < dhā

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

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