Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.39.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒यं द्यो॑तयद॒द्युतो॒ व्य१॒॑क्तून्दो॒षा वस्तो॑: श॒रद॒ इन्दु॑रिन्द्र । इ॒मं के॒तुम॑दधु॒र्नू चि॒दह्नां॒ शुचि॑जन्मन उ॒षस॑श्चकार ॥
अयं द्योतयदद्युतो व्यक्तून्दोषा वस्तोः शरद इन्दुरिन्द्र । इमं केतुमदधुर्नू चिदह्नां शुचिजन्मन उषसश्चकार ॥
ayaṃ dyotayad adyuto vy aktūn doṣā vastoḥ śarada indur indra | imaṃ ketum adadhur nū cid ahnāṃ śucijanmana uṣasaś cakāra ||

English translation:

“This Soma, Indra, (quaffed by you), has lighted up the unlustrous nights, and days and nights, and years; (the gods) of old have established it as the ensign of days, and it he made the dawns genitive rated in light.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

This Soma: ayam induḥ = Soma, implying both the moon and the Soma product; Soma is here candrātmā nabhasi vartamānaḥ, the same as the moon present in the sky, and as: candragatyādhīnatvāt tithivibhāgaḥ, the division of lunar days are dependent upon the motions of the moon, it may be said to be cause of days, weeks, months and years, the first term: aktun = fortnights, months and years; or, the longest periods of time; implied terms: tvayā pīyamānaḥ, to be drunk by you (since this interpretation is justified by the pronoun ayam


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒यम् । द्यो॒त॒य॒त् । अ॒द्युतः॑ । वि । अ॒क्तून् । दो॒षा । वस्तोः॑ । श॒रदः॑ । इन्दुः॑ । इ॒न्द्र॒ । इ॒मम् । के॒तुम् । अ॒द॒धुः॒ । नु । चि॒त् । अह्ना॑म् । शुचि॑ऽजन्मनः । उ॒षसः॑ । च॒का॒र॒ ॥
अयम् । द्योतयत् । अद्युतः । वि । अक्तून् । दोषा । वस्तोः । शरदः । इन्दुः । इन्द्र । इमम् । केतुम् । अदधुः । नु । चित् । अह्नाम् । शुचिजन्मनः । उषसः । चकार ॥
ayam | dyotayat | adyutaḥ | vi | aktūn | doṣā | vastoḥ | śaradaḥ | induḥ | indra | imam | ketum | adadhuḥ | nu | cit | ahnām | śuci-janmanaḥ | uṣasaḥ | cakāra

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.39.3 English analysis of grammar]

ayaṃ < ayam < idam

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

dyotayad < dyotayat < dyotay < √dyut

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“irradiate; shine; light.”

adyuto < adyutaḥ < adyut

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”

aktūn < aktu

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“night; dark; beam.”



“in the evening.”

vastoḥ < vastu

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine


śarada < śaradaḥ < śarad

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“fall; year; śarad [word].”

indur < induḥ < indu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“moon; Soma; drop; anusvāra; one; Candra; silver; camphor; point; juice.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

imaṃ < imam < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

ketum < ketu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“banner; ketu; sunbeam; enemy; sign; Premna spinosa Roxb.; comet; signal; signal; luminosity.”

adadhur < adadhuḥ < dhā

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

< nu


“now; already.”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

ahnāṃ < ahnām < ahar

[noun], genitive, plural, neuter

“day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”

śucijanmana < śuci


“clean; clean; pure; bright; clear; honest; śuci [word]; clear; impeccant.”

śucijanmana < janmanaḥ < janman

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“birth; reincarnation; lineage; origin; race; metempsychosis; parentage; descent; appearance; age; birthplace; beginning; being.”

uṣasaś < uṣasaḥ < uṣas

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”

cakāra < kṛ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

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