Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.39.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒यमु॑शा॒नः पर्यद्रि॑मु॒स्रा ऋ॒तधी॑तिभिॠत॒युग्यु॑जा॒नः । रु॒जदरु॑ग्णं॒ वि व॒लस्य॒ सानुं॑ प॒णीँर्वचो॑भिर॒भि यो॑ध॒दिन्द्र॑: ॥
अयमुशानः पर्यद्रिमुस्रा ऋतधीतिभिॠतयुग्युजानः । रुजदरुग्णं वि वलस्य सानुं पणीँर्वचोभिरभि योधदिन्द्रः ॥
ayam uśānaḥ pary adrim usrā ṛtadhītibhir ṛtayug yujānaḥ | rujad arugṇaṃ vi valasya sānum paṇīm̐r vacobhir abhi yodhad indraḥ ||

English translation:

“Determined (to recover) the cattle hidden in the mountain, associated with the animated by (their) veracious (praise), this (Indra) fractured the infrangible rock of Bala, and overwhelmed the Paṇis with reproaches.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒यम् । उ॒शा॒नः । परि॑ । अद्रि॑म् । उ॒स्राः । ऋ॒तधी॑तिऽभिः । ऋ॒त॒ऽयुक् । यु॒जा॒नः । रु॒जत् । अरु॑ग्णम् । वि । व॒लस्य॑ । सानु॑म् । प॒णीन् । वचः॑ऽभिः । अ॒भि । यो॒ध॒त् । इन्द्रः॑ ॥
अयम् । उशानः । परि । अद्रिम् । उस्राः । ऋतधीतिभिः । ऋतयुक् । युजानः । रुजत् । अरुग्णम् । वि । वलस्य । सानुम् । पणीन् । वचःभिः । अभि । योधत् । इन्द्रः ॥
ayam | uśānaḥ | pari | adrim | usrāḥ | ṛtadhīti-bhiḥ | ṛta-yuk | yujānaḥ | rujayt | arugṇam | vi | valasya | sānum | paṇīn | vacaḥ-bhiḥ | abhi | yodhat | indraḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.39.2 English analysis of grammar]

ayam < idam

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

uśānaḥ < vaś

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“desire; agree; call; care; like; love.”

pary < pari


“from; about; around.”

adrim < adri

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“mountain; rock; seven; stone; adri; grindstone; adri; rock.”

usrā < usrāḥ < usrā

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“cow; dawn.”

ṛtadhītibhir < ṛta

[noun], neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

ṛtadhītibhir < dhītibhiḥ < dhīti

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“thinking; prayer; understanding.”

ṛtayug < ṛta

[noun], neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

ṛtayug < yuj

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“amalgamated; harnessed.”

yujānaḥ < yuj

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“mix; use; endow; yoke; accompany; to practice Yoga; connect; hire; administer; compound; affect; add; concentrate; unite; join; prosecute; combine; supply; compound; attach to; appoint; fill; process; mobilize; mount; complement; eat; join; treat; coincide; affect; challenge.”

rujad < rujat < ruj

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“break; bend.”

arugṇaṃ < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

arugṇaṃ < rugṇam < ruj

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“break; bend.”



“apart; away; away.”

valasya < vala

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Vala; vala; cave.”

sānum < sānu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“tableland; ridge; peak; back; ridge; guru.”

paṇīṃr < paṇīn < paṇi

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“niggard; paṇ.”

vacobhir < vacobhiḥ < vacas

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“statement; command; speech; words; advice; word; voice.”



“towards; on.”

yodhad < yodhat < yudh

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

“fight; overcome.”

indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

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