Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.39.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒न्द्रस्य॑ क॒वेर्दि॒व्यस्य॒ वह्ने॒र्विप्र॑मन्मनो वच॒नस्य॒ मध्व॑: । अपा॑ न॒स्तस्य॑ सच॒नस्य॑ दे॒वेषो॑ युवस्व गृण॒ते गोअ॑ग्राः ॥
मन्द्रस्य कवेर्दिव्यस्य वह्नेर्विप्रमन्मनो वचनस्य मध्वः । अपा नस्तस्य सचनस्य देवेषो युवस्व गृणते गोअग्राः ॥
mandrasya kaver divyasya vahner vipramanmano vacanasya madhvaḥ | apā nas tasya sacanasya deveṣo yuvasva gṛṇate goagrāḥ ||

English translation:

“Drink, Indra, of that our sweet, exhilarating, inspiring, celestial, fruit-yielding Soma, commended by the wise, and entitled to praise and preparation; bestow upon him who glorifies you, divine (Indra), food, the chiefest of which is cattle.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Sweet, exhilarating...: Several epithets are unusual and do not seem to be applicable to a beverage; they are: mandra, exhilarating; kavi, explained vikrānta, heroic; divya, divine;

Vahni = voḍhā, bearing fruit; vipramanman, of which the sages are the praisers, stotāraḥ; vacana, laudable, stutya; sacana, to be served or honoured, sevya; the chiefest of which is cattle: iṣo yuvasva gṛṇate go agrāḥ = annam sanyojaya, combine or supply food to the praiser; yāsām iṣam gāvo agre, of which viands, cows are in the firs plural ce; metonymically, cows are intended to denote their produce, milk and butter


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

म॒न्द्रस्य॑ । क॒वेः । दि॒व्यस्य॑ । वह्नेः॑ । विप्र॑ऽमन्मनः । व॒च॒नस्य॑ । मध्वः॑ । अपाः॑ । नः॒ । तस्य॑ । स॒च॒नस्य॑ । दे॒व॒ । इषः॑ । यु॒व॒स्व॒ । गृ॒ण॒ते । गोऽअ॑ग्राः ॥
मन्द्रस्य । कवेः । दिव्यस्य । वह्नेः । विप्रमन्मनः । वचनस्य । मध्वः । अपाः । नः । तस्य । सचनस्य । देव । इषः । युवस्व । गृणते । गोअग्राः ॥
mandrasya | kaveḥ | divyasya | vahneḥ | vipra-manmanaḥ | vacanasya | madhvaḥ | apa | naḥ | tasya | sacanasya | deva | iṣaḥ | yuvasva | gṛṇate | go--agrāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.39.1 English analysis of grammar]

mandrasya < mandra

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“pleasant; eloquent; dulcet.”

kaver < kaveḥ < kavi

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“poet; wise man; bard; Venus; Uśanas; kavi [word]; Kavi; prophet; guru; Brahma.”

divyasya < divya

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“divine; celestial; divine; heavenly; divine; beautiful; rain; agreeable.”

vahner < vahneḥ < vahni

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“fire; digestion; Plumbago zeylanica; Agni; vahni; draft horse; three; sacrificial fire; Vahni; gold; southeast; citron; charioteer; leader.”

vipramanmano < vipra


“eloquent; stimulated; divine.”

vipramanmano < manmanaḥ < manman

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“hymn; idea; purpose.”

vacanasya < vacana

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“expressive(p); eloquent.”

madhvaḥ < madhu

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sweet; deft.”

apā < apāḥ <

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“drink; gulp; soak; drink; suck; inhale.”

nas < naḥ < mad

[noun], dative, plural

“I; mine.”

tasya < tad

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

sacanasya < sacana

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

deveṣo < deva

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

deveṣo < iṣaḥ < iṣ

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“refreshment; enjoyment; stores.”

yuvasva < yu

[verb], singular, Present imperative


gṛṇate < gṛ

[verb noun], dative, singular


goagrāḥ < go

[noun], masculine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

goagrāḥ < agrāḥ < agra

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“tip; beginning; peak; end; front; top; beginning; battlefront; agra [word]; acme; fingertip; top; best; optimum; climax; matter; glans.”

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