Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.16.13

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम॑ग्ने॒ पुष्क॑रा॒दध्यथ॑र्वा॒ निर॑मन्थत । मू॒र्ध्नो विश्व॑स्य वा॒घत॑: ॥
त्वामग्ने पुष्करादध्यथर्वा निरमन्थत । मूर्ध्नो विश्वस्य वाघतः ॥
tvām agne puṣkarād adhy atharvā nir amanthata | mūrdhno viśvasya vāghataḥ ||

English translation:

“The sage, Atharvan, extracted you from upon the lotus-leaf, the head, the support of the universe.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Tvam puṣkarād adhi atharvo nirmanthata, murdhno viṣvasya vāghataḥ: puṣkarādadhi = puṣkaraparṇe, lotus-leaf; puṣkara parṇe prajāpatir bhūmim aparthayat = upon the lotus-leaf prajāpati made manifest the earth, a probable acount of the creation in Manu; since it supported the earth, it may be termed the head, mūrdhan, or the bearer, vāghata for vāhaka, of all things; atharvan means prāṇa, vital air extracted fire or animal heat from the water, prāṇa udakasakāśād Agnim niśeṣaṇa mathitavān;

Vāghata = ṛtvij, the ministrant priest; so the sentence is explained: all the priests churned you out of the head or top of the wood of attrition


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdgāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम् । अ॒ग्ने॒ । पुष्क॑रात् । अधि॑ । अथ॑र्वा । निः । अ॒म॒न्थ॒त॒ । मू॒र्ध्नः । विश्व॑स्य । वा॒घतः॑ ॥
त्वाम् । अग्ने । पुष्करात् । अधि । अथर्वा । निः । अमन्थत । मूर्ध्नः । विश्वस्य । वाघतः ॥
tvām | agne | puṣkarāt | adhi | atharvā | niḥ | amanthata | mūdhnarḥ | viśvasya | vāghataḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.16.13 English analysis of grammar]

tvām < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular


agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

puṣkarād < puṣkarāt < puṣkara

[noun], ablative, singular, neuter

“lotus; Puṣkara; sky; puṣkara; pericarp; puṣkara [word]; Vishnu.”

adhy < adhi


“on; from; accordingly.”

atharvā < atharvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Atharvan; Atharvavedin.”

nir < niḥ


“niḥ; away; out; without.”

amanthata < math

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“churn; knead; trample; full; stir; crush.”

mūrdhno < mūrdhnaḥ < mūrdhan

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“head; battlefront; peak; top; mūrdhan [word]; leader; top.”

viśvasya < viśva

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

vāghataḥ < vāghant

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

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