Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 6.15.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स त्वं दक्ष॑स्यावृ॒को वृ॒धो भू॑र॒र्यः पर॒स्यान्त॑रस्य॒ तरु॑षः । रा॒यः सू॑नो सहसो॒ मर्त्ये॒ष्वा छ॒र्दिर्य॑च्छ वी॒तह॑व्याय स॒प्रथो॑ भ॒रद्वा॑जाय स॒प्रथ॑: ॥
स त्वं दक्षस्यावृको वृधो भूरर्यः परस्यान्तरस्य तरुषः । रायः सूनो सहसो मर्त्येष्वा छर्दिर्यच्छ वीतहव्याय सप्रथो भरद्वाजाय सप्रथः ॥
sa tvaṃ dakṣasyāvṛko vṛdho bhūr aryaḥ parasyāntarasya taruṣaḥ | rāyaḥ sūno sahaso martyeṣv ā chardir yaccha vītahavyāya sapratho bharadvājāya saprathaḥ ||

English translation:

“Do you, who are unresisted, become the benefactor of him who is skilled (in sacred rites), his defender against a near of distant enemy; son of strength, who are ever renowned, grant wealth and a dwelling to vītahavya, the offerer of the oblation.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Vītahavya, the bearer, bharat, of the oblation;

Vāja = bharadvāja, by whom is offered, vīta, the oblation, havya


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdatijagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सः । त्वम् । दक॑स्य । अ॒वृ॒कः । वृ॒धः । भूः॒ । अ॒र्यः । पर॑स्य । अन्त॑रस्य । तरु॑षः । रा॒यः । सू॒नो॒ इति॑ । स॒ह॒सः॒ । मर्त्ये॑षु । आ । छ॒र्दिः । य॒च्छ॒ । वी॒तऽह॑व्याय । स॒ऽप्रथः॑ । भ॒रत्ऽवा॑जाय । स॒ऽप्रथः॑ ॥
सः । त्वम् । दकस्य । अवृकः । वृधः । भूः । अर्यः । परस्य । अन्तरस्य । तरुषः । रायः । सूनो इति । सहसः । मर्त्येषु । आ । छर्दिः । यच्छ । वीतहव्याय । सप्रथः । भरत्वाजाय । सप्रथः ॥
saḥ | tvam | dakasya | avṛkaḥ | vṛdhaḥ | bhūḥ | aryaḥ | parasya | antarasya | taruṣaḥ | rāyaḥ | sūno iti | sahasaḥ | martyeṣu | ā | chardiḥ | yaccha | vīta-havyāya | sa-prathaḥ | bharat-vājāya | sa-prathaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.15.3 English analysis of grammar]

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

tvaṃ < tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


dakṣasyāvṛko < dakṣasya < dakṣa

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“deft; right; intelligent; expert.”

dakṣasyāvṛko < avṛkaḥ < avṛka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“protective; safe.”

vṛdho < vṛdhaḥ < vṛdha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“increasing; promotive.”

bhūr < bhūḥ < bhū

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

aryaḥ < ari

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

parasyāntarasya < parasya < para

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“best; other; following; devoted(p); extreme; highest; otherwordly; better; hostile; maximal; distant; another(a); para [word]; upper; concluding; foreign; earlier; worse; longer; finest; excessive.”

parasyāntarasya < antarasya < antara

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“another(a); other; interior; different; near; intermediate; following.”

taruṣaḥ < taruṣa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

rāyaḥ < rai

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“wealth; possession; rai [word]; gold.”

sūno < sūnu

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“son; offspring.”

sahaso < sahasaḥ < sahas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

martyeṣv < martyeṣu < martya

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“man; people; martya [word]; Earth.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

chardir < chardiḥ < chardis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“protection; protective covering.”

yaccha < yam

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“concentrate; grant; restrain; cause; control; offer; cover; raise.”

vītahavyāya < vītahavya

[noun], dative, singular, masculine


sapratho < saprathaḥ < saprathas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“extensive; wide; extended.”

bharadvājāya < bharadvāja

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“Bharadvāja; Droṇa; Bharadvāja; skylark.”

saprathaḥ < saprathas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“extensive; wide; extended.”

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