Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.12.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सास्माके॑भिरे॒तरी॒ न शू॒षैर॒ग्निः ष्ट॑वे॒ दम॒ आ जा॒तवे॑दाः । द्र्व॑न्नो व॒न्वन्क्रत्वा॒ नार्वो॒स्रः पि॒तेव॑ जार॒यायि॑ य॒ज्ञैः ॥
सास्माकेभिरेतरी न शूषैरग्निः ष्टवे दम आ जातवेदाः । द्र्वन्नो वन्वन्क्रत्वा नार्वोस्रः पितेव जारयायि यज्ञैः ॥
sāsmākebhir etarī na śūṣair agniḥ ṣṭave dama ā jātavedāḥ | drvanno vanvan kratvā nārvosraḥ piteva jārayāyi yajñaiḥ ||

English translation:

Agni, who knows all that exists, is propitiated in our dwelling by our praises, like those gratifying (commendations which proceed) from one soliciting (a favour); feeder upon trees, consumer of forests, impetuous in act as the bull, the (progenitor of calves), he is glorified by the celebration of sacrifices.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

From one soliciting favour: etari no etari = gantari, a goer; yācamāne puruṣe vidyamānāni stotrāṇi atyantam sukha karāṇi, like praises which being present in a man soliciting, going, or applying to another, are the yielders of very great plural asure.


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛtpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सः । अ॒स्माके॑भिः । ए॒तरि॑ । न । शू॒षैः । अ॒ग्निः । स्त॒वे॒ । दमे॑ । आ । जा॒तऽवे॑दाः । द्रुऽअ॑न्नः । व॒न्वन् । क्रत्वा॑ । न । अर्वा॑ । उ॒स्रः । पि॒ताऽइ॑व । जा॒र॒यायि॑ । य॒ज्ञैः ॥
सः । अस्माकेभिः । एतरि । न । शूषैः । अग्निः । स्तवे । दमे । आ । जातवेदाः । द्रुअन्नः । वन्वन् । क्रत्वा । न । अर्वा । उस्रः । पिताइव । जारयायि । यज्ञैः ॥
saḥ | asmākebhiḥ | etari | na | śūṣaiḥ | agniḥ | stave | dame | ā | jāta-vedāḥ | dru-annaḥ | vanvan | kratvā | na | arvā | usraḥ | pitāiva | jārayāyi | yajñaiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.12.4 English analysis of grammar]

sāsmākebhir < sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

sāsmākebhir < asmākebhiḥ < asmāka

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“our; asmāka [word].”


[noun], nominative, singular, feminine



“not; like; no; na [word].”

śūṣair < śūṣaiḥ < śūṣa

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“song; energy.”

agni < agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

ṣṭave < stave < stu

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“laud; praise; declare; stu.”

dama < dame < dama

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“dwelling; home.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

jātavedāḥ < jātavedas

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Agni; fire.”

drvanno < dru

[noun], neuter

“wood; tree; dru [word].”

drvanno < annaḥ < anna

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“food; foodstuff; grain; anna [word]; eating; boiled rice; meal.”

vanvan < van

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“obtain; gain; desire; get; like; love; overcome.”

kratvā < kratu

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

nārvosraḥ < < na


“not; like; no; na [word].”

nārvosraḥ < arvā < arvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“horse; arvan [word]; racehorse.”

nārvosraḥ < usraḥ < usṛ

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine


piteva < pitā < pitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”

piteva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

jārayāyi < jāray < √jṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist passive

“jāray; digest.”

yajñaiḥ < yajña

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“yajña; religious ceremony; Vishnu; yajña [word]; Yajña; Shiva.”

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