Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 6.3.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ति॒ग्मं चि॒देम॒ महि॒ वर्पो॑ अस्य॒ भस॒दश्वो॒ न य॑मसा॒न आ॒सा । वि॒जेह॑मानः पर॒शुर्न जि॒ह्वां द्र॒विर्न द्रा॑वयति॒ दारु॒ धक्ष॑त् ॥
तिग्मं चिदेम महि वर्पो अस्य भसदश्वो न यमसान आसा । विजेहमानः परशुर्न जिह्वां द्रविर्न द्रावयति दारु धक्षत् ॥
tigmaṃ cid ema mahi varpo asya bhasad aśvo na yamasāna āsā | vijehamānaḥ paraśur na jihvāṃ dravir na drāvayati dāru dhakṣat ||

English translation:

“Sharp is his path, and his vast body shines like a horse champing fodder with his mouth, darting forth his tongue like a hatchet, and burning timber to ashes, like a goldsmith who fuses (metal).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Like a goldsmith: dravir na drāvayati dāru dhakṣat = as a melter causes to melt, he burns the timber; yathā svarṇakāraḥ svarṇādikam drāvayati tathāgnir vanam bhasmasāt karoti, as a goldsmith fuses gold and the res, so Agni reduces the wood to ashes; this may imply something more than mere fusion of metals; the alchemical calcining or permutation of the metals would be more akin to the burning of timber, or reducing the metals to asheṣ


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): bharadvājo bārhaspatyaḥ [bharadvāja bārhaspatya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ति॒ग्मम् । चि॒त् । एम॑ । महि॑ । वर्पः॑ । अ॒स्य॒ । भस॑त् । अश्वः॑ । न । य॒म॒सा॒न । आ॒सा । वि॒ऽजेह॑मानः । प॒र॒शुः । न । जि॒ह्वाम् । द्र॒विः । न । द्र॒व॒य॒ति॒ । दारु॑ । धक्ष॑त् ॥
तिग्मम् । चित् । एम । महि । वर्पः । अस्य । भसत् । अश्वः । न । यमसान । आसा । विजेहमानः । परशुः । न । जिह्वाम् । द्रविः । न । द्रवयति । दारु । धक्षत् ॥
tigmam | cit | ema | mahi | varpaḥ | asya | bhasat | aśvaḥ | na | yamasāna | āsā | vi-jehamānaḥ | paraśuḥ | na | jihvām | draviḥ | na | dravayati | dāru | dhakṣat

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 6.3.4 English analysis of grammar]

tigmaṃ < tigmam < tigma

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“sharp; pointed; fiery.”

cid < cit


“even; indeed.”

ema < eman

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter


[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“great; firm.”

varpo < varpaḥ < varpas

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“form; look; disguise.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

bhasad < bhasat < bhas

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“chew; snatch.”

aśvo < aśvaḥ < aśva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“horse; aśva [word]; Aśva; stallion.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

yamasāna < yamasānaḥ < yamasāna

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

āsā < ās

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter


vijehamānaḥ < vijeh < √jeh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

paraśur < paraśuḥ < paraśu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“not; like; no; na [word].”

jihvāṃ < jihvām < jihvā

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“tongue; tongue; jihvā [word]; fire.”

dravir < draviḥ < dravi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine



“not; like; no; na [word].”

drāvayati < drāvay < √dru

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“melt; liquefy; chase away; dissolve.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“wood; log; lumber.”

dhakṣat < dah

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“burn; cauterize; heat; burn; burn; burn; roast; blaze; burn; distress; destroy.”

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