Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.53.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऐतान्रथे॑षु त॒स्थुष॒: कः शु॑श्राव क॒था य॑युः । कस्मै॑ सस्रुः सु॒दासे॒ अन्वा॒पय॒ इळा॑भिर्वृ॒ष्टय॑: स॒ह ॥
ऐतान्रथेषु तस्थुषः कः शुश्राव कथा ययुः । कस्मै सस्रुः सुदासे अन्वापय इळाभिर्वृष्टयः सह ॥
aitān ratheṣu tasthuṣaḥ kaḥ śuśrāva kathā yayuḥ | kasmai sasruḥ sudāse anv āpaya iḻābhir vṛṣṭayaḥ saha ||

English translation:

“Who has head them, when standing in their cars, (declare) whither they go? Upon what liberal worshipper do their kindred rains descend together with manifold food?”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): śyāvāśva ātreyaḥ [śyāvāśva ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): marūtaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdbṛhatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

आ । ए॒तान् । रथे॑षु । त॒स्थुषः॑ । कः । शु॒श्रा॒व॒ । क॒था । य॒युः॒ । कस्मै॑ । स॒स्रुः॒ । सु॒ऽदासे॑ । अनु॑ । आ॒पयः॑ । इळा॑भिः । वृ॒ष्टयः॑ । स॒ह ॥
आ । एतान् । रथेषु । तस्थुषः । कः । शुश्राव । कथा । ययुः । कस्मै । सस्रुः । सुदासे । अनु । आपयः । इळाभिः । वृष्टयः । सह ॥
ā | etān | ratheṣu | tasthuṣaḥ | kaḥ | śuśrāva | kathā | yayuḥ | kasmai | sasruḥ | su-dāse | anu | āpayaḥ | iḷābhiḥ | vṛṣṭayaḥ | saha

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.53.2 English analysis of grammar]

aitān < ā


“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

aitān < etān < etad

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); etad [word].”

ratheṣu < ratha

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

tasthuṣaḥ < sthā

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

śuśrāva < śru

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“listen; come to know; hear; hear; listen; study; heed; learn.”




yayuḥ <

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“go; enter (a state); travel; disappear; reach; come; campaign; elapse; arrive; drive; reach; leave; run; depart; ride.”

kasmai < ka

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

sasruḥ < sṛ

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“sṛ; liquefy; run; spread; stretch out.”

sudāse < sudās

[noun], dative, singular, masculine


anv < anu


“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

āpaya < āpayaḥ < āpi

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


iᄆābhir < iᄆābhiḥ < iḍā

[noun], instrumental, plural, feminine

“refreshment; iḍā [word]; comfort; cow.”

vṛṣṭayaḥ < vṛṣṭi

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“rain; shower; rainy season.”



“together; together; with; jointly; together; saha [word]; along.”

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