Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.44.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अत्यं॑ ह॒विः स॑चते॒ सच्च॒ धातु॒ चारि॑ष्टगातु॒: स होता॑ सहो॒भरि॑: । प्र॒सर्स्रा॑णो॒ अनु॑ ब॒र्हिर्वृषा॒ शिशु॒र्मध्ये॒ युवा॒जरो॑ वि॒स्रुहा॑ हि॒तः ॥
अत्यं हविः सचते सच्च धातु चारिष्टगातुः स होता सहोभरिः । प्रसर्स्राणो अनु बर्हिर्वृषा शिशुर्मध्ये युवाजरो विस्रुहा हितः ॥
atyaṃ haviḥ sacate sac ca dhātu cāriṣṭagātuḥ sa hotā sahobhariḥ | prasarsrāṇo anu barhir vṛṣā śiśur madhye yuvājaro visruhā hitaḥ ||

English translation:

“He, (Agni), is associated with the perpetual oblation that is the true (source of good); the sustainer of all, he is of unrestricted movement, the offerer (of burnt-offerings), the cherisher of strength; gliding especially over the sacred grass, the showerer (of benefits); an infant, a youth, exempt from decay, whose plural ce is among plural nts.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): avatsāraḥ kāśyapa anye ca dṛsṭaliṅgāḥ [avatsāra kāśyapa anye ca dṛsṭaliṅgāḥ];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛjjagatī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अत्य॑म् । ह॒विः । स॒च॒ते॒ । सत् । च॒ । धातु॑ । च॒ । अरि॑ष्टऽगातुः । सः । होता॑ । स॒हः॒ऽभरिः॑ । प्र॒ऽसर्स्रा॑णः । अनु॑ । ब॒र्हिः । वृषा॑ । शिशुः॑ । मध्ये॑ । युवा॑ । अ॒जरः॑ । वि॒ऽस्रुहा॑ । हि॒तः ॥
अत्यम् । हविः । सचते । सत् । च । धातु । च । अरिष्टगातुः । सः । होता । सहःभरिः । प्रसर्स्राणः । अनु । बर्हिः । वृषा । शिशुः । मध्ये । युवा । अजरः । विस्रुहा । हितः ॥
atyam | haviḥ | sacate | sat | ca | dhātu | ca | ariṣta-gātuḥ | saḥ | hotā | sahaḥ-bhariḥ | pra-sarsrāṇaḥ | anu | barhiḥ | vṛṣā | śiśuḥ | madhye | yuvā | ajaraḥ | vi-sruhā | hitaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.44.3 English analysis of grammar]

atyaṃ < atyam < atya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“horse; steed.”

haviḥ < havis

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“Havya; offering; ghee; havis [word].”

sacate < sac

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“accompany; follow; company; obey; participate; enter.”

sac < sat < as

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”


[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“mineral; dhātu; saptadhātu; Sanskrit verbal root; etymon; aṣṭaloha; mahābhūta; gairika; component; navadhātu; svarṇamākṣika; doṣa; inorganic compound.”

cāriṣṭagātuḥ < ca


“and; besides; then; now; even.”

cāriṣṭagātuḥ < ariṣṭa


“safe; unharmed.”

cāriṣṭagātuḥ < gātuḥ < gātu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“path; way.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

hotā < hotṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


sahobhariḥ < sahaḥ < sahas

[noun], neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

sahobhariḥ < bhariḥ < bhari

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

prasarsrāṇo < prasarsrāṇaḥ < prasarsṛ < √sṛ

[verb noun], nominative, singular



“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

barhir < barhiḥ < barhis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Barhis; barhis [word].”

vṛṣā < vṛṣan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; Indra; stallion; Vṛṣan; man.”

śiśur < śiśuḥ < śiśu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“young; matutinal.”

madhye < madhya

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“midst; center; cavity; inside; middle; center; waist; group; pulp; torso; time interval; area; series; madhya [word]; Madhya; noon; middle; middle age; span; belly.”

yuvājaro < yuvā < yuvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“young; youthful.”

yuvājaro < ajaraḥ < ajara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“undecaying; ageless.”

visruhā < visruh

[noun], instrumental, singular, feminine

hitaḥ < dhā

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: