Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 5.31.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उद्यत्सह॒: सह॑स॒ आज॑निष्ट॒ देदि॑ष्ट॒ इन्द्र॑ इन्द्रि॒याणि॒ विश्वा॑ । प्राचो॑दयत्सु॒दुघा॑ व॒व्रे अ॒न्तर्वि ज्योति॑षा संववृ॒त्वत्तमो॑ऽवः ॥
उद्यत्सहः सहस आजनिष्ट देदिष्ट इन्द्र इन्द्रियाणि विश्वा । प्राचोदयत्सुदुघा वव्रे अन्तर्वि ज्योतिषा संववृत्वत्तमोऽवः ॥
ud yat sahaḥ sahasa ājaniṣṭa dediṣṭa indra indriyāṇi viśvā | prācodayat sudughā vavre antar vi jyotiṣā saṃvavṛtvat tamo 'vaḥ ||

English translation:

“When the light (of the sun) overpowers the light (of the dawn) Indra grants all (sorts of) wealth (to the worshipper); he has liberated the kine from the interior of the obstructing (mountain); he dissipates the enveloping darkness with light.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): amahīyuḥ;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उत् । यत् । सहः॑ । सह॑सः । आ । अज॑निष्ट । देदि॑ष्टे । इन्द्रः॑ । इ॒न्द्रि॒याणि॑ । विश्वा॑ । प्र । अ॒चो॒द॒य॒त् । सु॒ऽदुघाः॑ । व॒व्रे । अ॒न्तः । वि । ज्योति॑षा । स॒म्ऽव॒वृ॒त्वत् । तमः॑ । अ॒व॒रित्य॑वः ॥
उत् । यत् । सहः । सहसः । आ । अजनिष्ट । देदिष्टे । इन्द्रः । इन्द्रियाणि । विश्वा । प्र । अचोदयत् । सुदुघाः । वव्रे । अन्तः । वि । ज्योतिषा । सम्ववृत्वत् । तमः । अवरित्यवः ॥
ut | yat | sahaḥ | sahasaḥ | ā | ajaniṣṭa | dediṣṭe | indraḥ | indriyāṇi | viśvā | pra | acodayat | su-dughāḥ | vavre | antaḥ | vi | jyotiṣā | sam-vavṛtvat | tamaḥ | avar ity avaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.31.3 English analysis of grammar]






“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

sahaḥ < sahas

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

sahasa < sahasaḥ < sahas

[noun], ablative, singular, neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

ājaniṣṭa < ājan < √jan

[verb], singular, Athematic is aor. (Ind.)

“be born.”

dediṣṭa < dediś < √diś

[verb], singular, Imperfect

indra < indraḥ < indra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indriyāṇi < indriya

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“sense organ; Indriya; sense; power; semen; indriya [word]; mind; penis; manfulness; force.”

viśvā < viśva

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

prācodayat < pracoday < √cud

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“push; drive; command; excite; proclaim; demand; request; request.”

sudughā < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sudughā < dughāḥ < dugha

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine


vavre < vavra

[noun], locative, singular, masculine



“inside; in; antar [word]; midmost; between; among.”



“apart; away; away.”

jyotiṣā < jyotis

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“light; star; luminosity; fire; jyotis [word]; digestion; planet; light; sunlight.”

saṃvavṛtvat < saṃvṛt < √vṛt

[verb noun], accusative, singular


tamo < tamaḥ < tamas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

'vaḥ < avaḥ < vṛ

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“surround; accompany; cover; cover; obstruct; check; spread; envelop.”

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