Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.8.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम॑ग्ने॒ अति॑थिं पू॒र्व्यं विश॑: शो॒चिष्के॑शं गृ॒हप॑तिं॒ नि षे॑दिरे । बृ॒हत्के॑तुं पुरु॒रूपं॑ धन॒स्पृतं॑ सु॒शर्मा॑णं॒ स्वव॑सं जर॒द्विष॑म् ॥
त्वामग्ने अतिथिं पूर्व्यं विशः शोचिष्केशं गृहपतिं नि षेदिरे । बृहत्केतुं पुरुरूपं धनस्पृतं सुशर्माणं स्ववसं जरद्विषम् ॥
tvām agne atithim pūrvyaṃ viśaḥ śociṣkeśaṃ gṛhapatiṃ ni ṣedire | bṛhatketum pururūpaṃ dhanaspṛtaṃ suśarmāṇaṃ svavasaṃ jaradviṣam ||

English translation:

“Men have established you, (Agni), their ancient guest, as the lord of the house; (you), the blazing-haired, the vast bannered, the multiform, the dispenser of wealth, the bestower of happiness, the kind protector, the destruction of decaying (trees).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Jaradviṣam = liṭ, that which is poison to the old; it is explained as jaratām vṛkṣāṇām vyāpakam, the pervader or consumer of old trees; or, it may mean jirṇodakam, that by which water is dried up


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): iṣa ātreyaḥ [iṣa ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम् । अ॒ग्ने॒ । अति॑थिम् । पू॒र्व्यम् । विशः॑ । शो॒चिःऽके॑शम् । गृ॒हऽप॑तिम् । नि । से॒दि॒रे॒ । बृ॒हत्ऽके॑तुम् । पु॒रु॒ऽरूप॑म् । ध॒न॒ऽस्पृत॑म् । सु॒ऽशर्मा॑णम् । सु॒ऽअव॑सम् । ज॒र॒त्ऽविष॑म् ॥
त्वाम् । अग्ने । अतिथिम् । पूर्व्यम् । विशः । शोचिःकेशम् । गृहपतिम् । नि । सेदिरे । बृहत्केतुम् । पुरुरूपम् । धनस्पृतम् । सुशर्माणम् । सुअवसम् । जरत्विषम् ॥
tvām | agne | atithim | pūrvyam | viśaḥ | śociḥ-keśam | gṛha-patim | ni | sedire | bṛhat-ketum | puru-rūpam | dhana-spṛtam | su-śarmāṇam | su-avasam | jarat-viṣam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.8.2 English analysis of grammar]

tvām < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular


agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

atithim < atithi

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“guest; atithi [word]; Atithi.”

pūrvyaṃ < pūrvyam < pūrvya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“first; precedent; age-old; excellent; former(a).”

viśaḥ < viś

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“people; tribe; Vaisya; national; viś; real property; Vaisya.”

śociṣkeśaṃ < śociṣkeśam < śociṣkeśa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


gṛhapatiṃ < gṛhapatim < gṛhapati

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“gṛhapati [word]; Gṛhastha.”



“back; down.”

ṣedire < sad

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”

bṛhatketum < bṛhat


“large; great; loud; high; much(a); exalted; abundant; intensive; strong; huge.”

bṛhatketum < ketum < ketu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“banner; ketu; sunbeam; enemy; sign; Premna spinosa Roxb.; comet; signal; signal; luminosity.”

pururūpaṃ < puru


“many; much(a); very.”

pururūpaṃ < rūpam < rūpa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“form; appearance; beauty; look; shape; shape; symptom; feature; nature; guise; rūpa [word]; one; appearance; likeness; color; kind; vowel; type; disguise; aspect; form; derivative; omen; vision.”

dhanaspṛtaṃ < dhana

[noun], neuter

“wealth; property; money; treasure; prize; dhana [word]; valuable; dhan; capital; fight.”

dhanaspṛtaṃ < spṛtam < spṛt

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“victorious; protecting.”

suśarmāṇaṃ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

suśarmāṇaṃ < śarmāṇam < śarman

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“protection; protective covering; refuge; joy.”

svavasaṃ < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

svavasaṃ < avasam < avas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“aid; favor; protection.”

jaradviṣam < jaradviṣ

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

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