Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.8.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम॑ग्न ऋता॒यव॒: समी॑धिरे प्र॒त्नं प्र॒त्नास॑ ऊ॒तये॑ सहस्कृत । पु॒रु॒श्च॒न्द्रं य॑ज॒तं वि॒श्वधा॑यसं॒ दमू॑नसं गृ॒हप॑तिं॒ वरे॑ण्यम् ॥
त्वामग्न ऋतायवः समीधिरे प्रत्नं प्रत्नास ऊतये सहस्कृत । पुरुश्चन्द्रं यजतं विश्वधायसं दमूनसं गृहपतिं वरेण्यम् ॥
tvām agna ṛtāyavaḥ sam īdhire pratnam pratnāsa ūtaye sahaskṛta | puruścandraṃ yajataṃ viśvadhāyasaṃ damūnasaṃ gṛhapatiṃ vareṇyam ||

English translation:

“Manifest of strength, Agni, ancient worshippers have kindled you of old for their preservation; you, the delighter of many, the adorable, the all-sustaining, the lowly-minded, the lord of the house, the excellent.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): iṣa ātreyaḥ [iṣa ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वाम् । अ॒ग्ने॒ । ऋ॒त॒ऽयवः॑ । सम् । ई॒धि॒रे॒ । प्र॒त्नम् । प्र॒त्नासः॑ । ऊ॒तये॑ । स॒हः॒ऽकृ॒त॒ । पु॒रु॒ऽच॒न्द्रम् । य॒ज॒तम् । वि॒श्वऽधा॑यसम् । दमू॑नसम् । गृ॒हऽप॑तिम् । वरे॑ण्यम् ॥
त्वाम् । अग्ने । ऋतयवः । सम् । ईधिरे । प्रत्नम् । प्रत्नासः । ऊतये । सहःकृत । पुरुचन्द्रम् । यजतम् । विश्वधायसम् । दमूनसम् । गृहपतिम् । वरेण्यम् ॥
tvām | agne | ṛta-yavaḥ | sam | īdhire | pratnam | pratnāsaḥ | ūtaye | sahaḥ-kṛta | puru-candram | yajatam | viśva-dhāyasam | damūnasam | gṛha-patim | vareṇyam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.8.1 English analysis of grammar]

tvām < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular


agna < agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

ṛtāyavaḥ < ṛtāyu

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine



“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

īdhire < indh

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“kindle; ignite; set ablaze.”

pratnam < pratna

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“age-old; pratna [word].”

pratnāsa < pratnāsaḥ < pratna

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“age-old; pratna [word].”

ūtaye < ūti

[noun], dative, singular, feminine

“aid; favor; ūti [word].”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“increased; aroused.”

puruścandraṃ < puru


“many; much(a); very.”

puruścandraṃ < ścandram < ścandra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“shining; glistening; brilliant.”

yajataṃ < yajatam < yajata

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“holy; august; sacrificial.”

viśvadhāyasaṃ < viśva


“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

viśvadhāyasaṃ < dhāyasam < dhāyas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“alimentary; sustaining.”

damūnasaṃ < damūnasam < damūnas

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


gṛhapatiṃ < gṛhapatim < gṛhapati

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“gṛhapati [word]; Gṛhastha.”

vareṇyam < vareṇya

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“excellent; desirable.”

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