Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.55.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

को व॑स्त्रा॒ता व॑सव॒: को व॑रू॒ता द्यावा॑भूमी अदिते॒ त्रासी॑थां नः । सही॑यसो वरुण मित्र॒ मर्ता॒त्को वो॑ऽध्व॒रे वरि॑वो धाति देवाः ॥
को वस्त्राता वसवः को वरूता द्यावाभूमी अदिते त्रासीथां नः । सहीयसो वरुण मित्र मर्तात्को वोऽध्वरे वरिवो धाति देवाः ॥
ko vas trātā vasavaḥ ko varūtā dyāvābhūmī adite trāsīthāṃ naḥ | sahīyaso varuṇa mitra martāt ko vo 'dhvare varivo dhāti devāḥ ||

English translation:

“Which of you, Vasus, is a defender? Which is a protector? Heaven and earth and Aditi preserve us; defend us, Mitra and Varuṇa, from the strong man; who is it, gods, that offers you wealth at the sacrifice?”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Aditi: dyāvābhūmi adite trāsīthām naḥ: adite, undivided, indivisible, may be an epithet of heaven and earth; who is it, gods, that offer you: ko vo adhvare arivo dhāti devāḥ = which of you gods bestows wealth at the sacrifice?


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

कः । वः॒ । त्रा॒ता । व॒स॒वः॒ । कः । व॒रू॒ता । द्यावा॑भूमी॒ इति॑ । अ॒दि॒ते॒ । त्रासी॑थाम् । नः॒ । सही॑यसः । व॒रु॒ण॒ । मि॒त्र॒ । मर्ता॑त् । कः । वः॒ । अ॒ध्व॒रे । वरि॑वः । धा॒ति॒ । दे॒वाः॒ ॥
कः । वः । त्राता । वसवः । कः । वरूता । द्यावाभूमी इति । अदिते । त्रासीथाम् । नः । सहीयसः । वरुण । मित्र । मर्तात् । कः । वः । अध्वरे । वरिवः । धाति । देवाः ॥
kaḥ | vaḥ | trātā | vasavaḥ | kaḥ | varūtā | dyāvābhūmī iti | adite | trāsīthām | naḥ | sahīyasaḥ | varuṇa | mitra | martāt | kaḥ | vaḥ | adhvare | varivaḥ | dhāti | devāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.55.1 English analysis of grammar]

ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

vas < vaḥ < tvad

[noun], genitive, plural


trātā < trā

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“protect; help.”

vasavaḥ < vasu

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“good; good; benign; vasu [word].”

ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

varūtā < varūtṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“varūtṛ [word].”


[noun], vocative, dual, feminine

“heaven and earth.”

adite < aditi

[noun], vocative, singular, feminine

“Aditi; aditi [word].”

trāsīthāṃ < trāsīthām < trā

[verb], dual, Aorist optative

“protect; help.”

naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

sahīyaso < sahīyasaḥ < sahīyas

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine



[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“friend; Mitra; mitra [word]; sun; ally.”

martāt < marta

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine


ko < kaḥ < ka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“what; who; ka [pronoun].”

vo < vaḥ < tvad

[noun], genitive, plural


'dhvare < adhvare < adhvara

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”

varivo < varivaḥ < varivas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“room; varivas [word]; space; escape.”

dhāti < dhā

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

devāḥ < deva

[noun], vocative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: