Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.51.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अस्थु॑रु चि॒त्रा उ॒षस॑: पु॒रस्ता॑न्मि॒ता इ॑व॒ स्वर॑वोऽध्व॒रेषु॑ । व्यू॑ व्र॒जस्य॒ तम॑सो॒ द्वारो॒च्छन्ती॑रव्र॒ञ्छुच॑यः पाव॒काः ॥
अस्थुरु चित्रा उषसः पुरस्तान्मिता इव स्वरवोऽध्वरेषु । व्यू व्रजस्य तमसो द्वारोच्छन्तीरव्रञ्छुचयः पावकाः ॥
asthur u citrā uṣasaḥ purastān mitā iva svaravo 'dhvareṣu | vy ū vrajasya tamaso dvārocchantīr avrañ chucayaḥ pāvakāḥ ||

English translation:

“The many-limbed Dawns rise up in the east, like the pillars plural nted at sacrifices (round the altar); radiant and purifying, they are manifested, opening the gates of the obstructing gloom.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): uṣāḥ ;
Chandas (meter): paṅktiḥ ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अस्थुः॑ । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । चि॒त्राः । उ॒षसः॑ । पु॒रस्ता॑त् । मि॒ताःऽइ॑व । स्वर॑वः । अ॒ध्व॒रेषु॑ । वि । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । व्र॒जस्य॑ । तम॑सः । द्वारा॑ । उ॒च्छन्तीः॑ । अ॒व्र॒न् । शुच॑यः । पाव॒काः ॥
अस्थुः । ऊँ इति । चित्राः । उषसः । पुरस्तात् । मिताःइव । स्वरवः । अध्वरेषु । वि । ऊँ इति । व्रजस्य । तमसः । द्वारा । उच्छन्तीः । अव्रन् । शुचयः । पावकाः ॥
asthuḥ | oṃ iti | citrāḥ | uṣasaḥ | purastāt | mitāḥ-iva | svaravaḥ | adhvareṣu | vi | oṃ iti | vrajasya | tamasaḥ | dvārā | ucchantīḥ | avran | śucayaḥ | pāvakāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.51.2 English analysis of grammar]

asthur < asthuḥ < sthā

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

citrā < citrāḥ < citra

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“manifold; extraordinary; beautiful; divers(a); varicolored; bright; bright; bright; outstanding; agitated; aglitter(p); brilliant; painted; obvious; patched; bizarre.”

uṣasaḥ < uṣas

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”

purastān < purastāt


“ahead; eastward; earlier; above; above.”

mitā < mitāḥ <

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“weigh; measure; total; last; weigh; measure; give away; transform.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

svaravo < svaravaḥ < svaru

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine


'dhvareṣu < adhvareṣu < adhvara

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”




vrajasya < vraja

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“cow pen; Vraja; battalion; Vraja; Vraja; vraja [word]; vraj; herd; flock; group.”

tamaso < tamasaḥ < tamas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“dark; darkness; Tamas; tamas [word]; faint; tamas; gloom; ignorance.”

dvārocchantīr < dvārā < dvāra

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“aperture; gate; door; mouth; vagina; orifice; dvāra [word]; pass; opening; means; entrance.”

dvārocchantīr < ucchantīḥ < vas

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“dawn; shine.”

avrañchucayaḥ < avran < vṛ

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“surround; accompany; cover; cover; obstruct; check; spread; envelop.”

avrañchucayaḥ < śucayaḥ < śuci

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“clean; clean; pure; bright; clear; honest; śuci [word]; clear; impeccant.”

pāvakāḥ < pāvaka

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“pure; purifying; pure; āgneya; clear; bright; bright.”

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