Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.46.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

रथं॒ हिर॑ण्यवन्धुर॒मिन्द्र॑वायू स्वध्व॒रम् । आ हि स्थाथो॑ दिवि॒स्पृश॑म् ॥
रथं हिरण्यवन्धुरमिन्द्रवायू स्वध्वरम् । आ हि स्थाथो दिविस्पृशम् ॥
rathaṃ hiraṇyavandhuram indravāyū svadhvaram | ā hi sthātho divispṛśam ||

English translation:

“Mount, Indra and Vāyu, the golden-seated chariot, propitious to sacrifice, soaring to heaven.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indravāyū ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdgāyatrī ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

रथ॑म् । हिर॑ण्यऽवन्धुरम् । इन्द्र॑वायू॒ इति॑ । सु॒ऽअ॒ध्व॒रम् । आ । हि । स्थाथः॑ । दि॒वि॒ऽस्पृश॑म् ॥
रथम् । हिरण्यवन्धुरम् । इन्द्रवायू इति । सुअध्वरम् । आ । हि । स्थाथः । दिविस्पृशम् ॥
ratham | hiraṇya-vandhuram | indravāyūiti | su-adhvaram | ā | hi | sthāthaḥ | div i-spṛśam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.46.4 English analysis of grammar]

rathaṃ < ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

hiraṇyavandhuram < hiraṇya

[noun], neuter

“gold; jewelry; hiraṇya [word]; gold.”

hiraṇyavandhuram < vandhuram < vandhura

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“seat; seat.”

indravāyū < indra

[noun], masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indravāyū < vāyū < vāyu

[noun], vocative, dual, masculine

“wind; Vayu; vāta; prāṇa (coll.); air; air; fart; breath; northwest; draft; vāyu [word]; Vāyu; Marut.”

svadhvaram < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

svadhvaram < adhvaram < adhvara

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”



“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

sthātho < sthāthaḥ < sthā

[verb], dual, Aorist conj./subj.

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

divispṛśam < divispṛś

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


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