Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.41.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ता वां॒ धियोऽव॑से वाज॒यन्ती॑रा॒जिं न ज॑ग्मुर्युव॒यूः सु॑दानू । श्रि॒ये न गाव॒ उप॒ सोम॑मस्थु॒रिन्द्रं॒ गिरो॒ वरु॑णं मे मनी॒षाः ॥
ता वां धियोऽवसे वाजयन्तीराजिं न जग्मुर्युवयूः सुदानू । श्रिये न गाव उप सोममस्थुरिन्द्रं गिरो वरुणं मे मनीषाः ॥
tā vāṃ dhiyo 'vase vājayantīr ājiṃ na jagmur yuvayūḥ sudānū | śriye na gāva upa somam asthur indraṃ giro varuṇam me manīṣāḥ ||

English translation:

“Liberal givers, those (our) praises soliciting (abundant) food have proceeded to you for (your) protection; longing for you as (soldiers long) for battle, and as cattle approach the Soma for (its) advantage, so my heartfelt hymns (approach) Indra and Varuṇa.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Longing for you: yuvayuḥ = yuvam kāmayamānaḥ; approach the soma for its advantage: śriye na gāva upa somam asthuḥ, an allusion to the mixture of milk and curds with the Soma libation, dadhyādiśrayaṇāya]. 


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indrāvaruṇau ;
Chandas (meter): svarāṭpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ताः । वा॒म् । धियः॑ । अव॑से । वा॒ज॒ऽयन्तीः॑ । आ॒जिम् । न । ज॒मुः॒ । यु॒व॒ऽयूः । सु॒दा॒नू॒ इति॑ सुऽदानू । श्रि॒ये । न । गावः॑ । उप॑ । सोम॑म् । अ॒स्थुः॒ । इन्द्र॑म् । गिरः॑ । वरु॑णम् । मे॒ । म॒नी॒षाः ॥
ताः । वाम् । धियः । अवसे । वाजयन्तीः । आजिम् । न । जमुः । युवयूः । सुदानू इति सुदानू । श्रिये । न । गावः । उप । सोमम् । अस्थुः । इन्द्रम् । गिरः । वरुणम् । मे । मनीषाः ॥
tāḥ | vām | dhiyaḥ | avase | vāja-yantīḥ | ājim | na | jamuḥ | yuva-yūḥ | sudānūitisu-dānū | śriye | na | gāvaḥ | upa | somam | asthuḥ | indram | giraḥ | varuṇam | me | manīṣāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.41.8 English analysis of grammar]

< tāḥ < tad

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

vāṃ < vām < tvad

[noun], dative, dual


dhiyo < dhiyaḥ < dhī

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“intelligence; prayer; mind; insight; idea; hymn; purpose; art; knowledge.”

'vase < avase < av

[verb noun]

“support; help; prefer; prefer; like.”

vājayantīr < vājayantīḥ < vājay < √vaj

[verb noun], nominative, plural


ājiṃ < ājim < āji

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“battle; fight; contest; āji [word]; combat.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

jagmur < jagmuḥ < gam

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“go; situate; enter (a state); travel; disappear; [in]; elapse; leave; reach; vanish; love; walk; approach; issue; hop on; gasify; get; come; die; drain; spread; transform; happen; discharge; ride; to be located; run; detect; refer; go; shall; drive.”

yuvayūḥ < yuvayu

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

sudānū < sudānu

[noun], vocative, dual, masculine

“big; lavish.”

śriye < śrī

[noun], dative, singular, feminine

“mister; Ms.; Lakshmi; good fortune; well-being; magnificence; glory; beauty; Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; dignity; power; śrī [word]; śrī; prosperity; auspiciousness.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

gāva < gāvaḥ < go

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”



“towards; on; next.”

somam < soma

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Soma; moon; soma [word]; Candra.”

asthur < asthuḥ < sthā

[verb], plural, Root aorist (Ind.)

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”

indraṃ < indram < indra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

giro < giraḥ < gir

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“hymn; praise; voice; words; invocation; command; statement; cry; language.”

varuṇam < varuṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

me < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”

manīṣāḥ < manīṣā

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“hymn; inspiration; idea; thinking; wish; consideration; intelligence.”

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