Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 4.41.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इन्द्रा॑ ह॒ यो वरु॑णा च॒क्र आ॒पी दे॒वौ मर्त॑: स॒ख्याय॒ प्रय॑स्वान् । स ह॑न्ति वृ॒त्रा स॑मि॒थेषु॒ शत्रू॒नवो॑भिर्वा म॒हद्भि॒: स प्र शृ॑ण्वे ॥
इन्द्रा ह यो वरुणा चक्र आपी देवौ मर्तः सख्याय प्रयस्वान् । स हन्ति वृत्रा समिथेषु शत्रूनवोभिर्वा महद्भिः स प्र शृण्वे ॥
indrā ha yo varuṇā cakra āpī devau martaḥ sakhyāya prayasvān | sa hanti vṛtrā samitheṣu śatrūn avobhir vā mahadbhiḥ sa pra śṛṇve ||

English translation:

“Divine Indra and Varuṇa, the mortal diligent in offering (you) sacrificial food, who has through friendship made you his kinsmen, destroys (his own) sins, and his enemies in battle; and by your great favours he becomes renowned.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indrāvaruṇau ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इन्द्रा॑ । ह॒ । यः । वरु॑णा । च॒क्रे । आ॒पी इति॑ । दे॒वौ । मर्तः॑ । स॒ख्याय॑ । प्रय॑स्वान् । सः । ह॒न्ति॒ । वृ॒त्रा । स॒म्ऽइ॒थेषु॑ । शत्रू॑न् । अवः॑ऽभिः । वा॒ । म॒हत्ऽभिः॑ । सः । प्र । शृ॒ण्वे॒ ॥
इन्द्रा । ह । यः । वरुणा । चक्रे । आपी इति । देवौ । मर्तः । सख्याय । प्रयस्वान् । सः । हन्ति । वृत्रा । सम्इथेषु । शत्रून् । अवःभिः । वा । महत्भिः । सः । प्र । शृण्वे ॥
indrā | ha | yaḥ | varuṇā | cakre | āpī iti | devau | martaḥ | sakhyāya | prayasvān | saḥ | hanti | vṛtrā | sam-itheṣu | śatrūn | avaḥ-bhiḥ | vā | mahat-bhiḥ | saḥ | pra | śṛṇve

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.41.2 English analysis of grammar]

indrā < indra

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”



“indeed; ha [word].”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

varuṇā < varuṇa

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

cakra < cakre < kṛ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

āpī < āpi

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine


devau < deva

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

martaḥ < marta

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


sakhyāya < sakhya

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“friendship; aid; company.”

prayasvān < prayasvat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

hanti < han

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

vṛtrā < vṛtra

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter


samitheṣu < samitha

[noun], locative, plural, neuter

“battle; conflict.”

śatrūn < śatru

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“enemy; foe; enemy; Asura.”

avobhir < avobhiḥ < avas

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“aid; favor; protection.”


“or; optionally; either.”

mahadbhiḥ < mahat

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“large; eminent; great; loud; dangerous; strong; long; high; much(a); mahant [word]; ample; very; great; adult; important; dark; high; abundant; violent; remarkable; mighty; big; long.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”



“towards; ahead.”

śṛṇve < śru

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“listen; come to know; hear; hear; listen; study; heed; learn.”

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