Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.40.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त स्य वा॒जी क्षि॑प॒णिं तु॑रण्यति ग्री॒वायां॑ ब॒द्धो अ॑पिक॒क्ष आ॒सनि॑ । क्रतुं॑ दधि॒क्रा अनु॑ सं॒तवी॑त्वत्प॒थामङ्कां॒स्यन्वा॒पनी॑फणत् ॥
उत स्य वाजी क्षिपणिं तुरण्यति ग्रीवायां बद्धो अपिकक्ष आसनि । क्रतुं दधिक्रा अनु संतवीत्वत्पथामङ्कांस्यन्वापनीफणत् ॥
uta sya vājī kṣipaṇiṃ turaṇyati grīvāyām baddho apikakṣa āsani | kratuṃ dadhikrā anu saṃtavītvat pathām aṅkāṃsy anv āpanīphaṇat ||

English translation:

“And that horse bound by his neck, his flanks, his mouth, accelerates his paces; Dadhikrā increasing in vigour after the (sacred rite), following the windings of the roads, goes still more rapidly.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): dadhikrāvā ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒त । स्यः । वा॒जी । क्षि॒प॒णिम् । तु॒र॒ण्य॒ति॒ । ग्री॒वाया॑म् । ब॒द्धः । अ॒पि॒ऽक॒क्षे । आ॒सनि॑ । क्रतु॑म् । द॒धि॒ऽक्राः । अनु॑ । स॒म्ऽतवी॑त्वत् । प॒थाम् । अङ्कां॑सि । अनु॑ । आ॒ऽपनी॑फणत् ॥
उत । स्यः । वाजी । क्षिपणिम् । तुरण्यति । ग्रीवायाम् । बद्धः । अपिकक्षे । आसनि । क्रतुम् । दधिक्राः । अनु । सम्तवीत्वत् । पथाम् । अङ्कांसि । अनु । आपनीफणत् ॥
uta | syaḥ | vājī | kṣipaṇim | turaṇyati | grīvāyām | baddhaḥ | āpi-kakṣe | āsani | kratum | dadhi-krāḥ | anu | sam-tavītvat | pathām | aṅkāṃsi | anu | āpanīphaṇat

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.40.4 English analysis of grammar]



“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

sya < tya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


vājī < vājin

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“horse; bird; seven; hero; achiever; aphrodisiac.”

kṣipaṇiṃ < kṣipaṇim < kṣipaṇi

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

turaṇyati < turaṇy

[verb], singular, Present indikative


grīvāyām < grīvā

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“neck; grīvā [word].”

baddho < baddhaḥ < bandh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“bandh; tie; envelop; close; dress; wrap; bind; constipate; fixate; shape; paralyze; construct; bandage; compress; beset; oblige; strap; restrain; bind; gesticulate; wear; bar; bandh; connect; stud; mix; obstruct; write; restrain; bind; persecute; enclose; ligature; fill into; fasten.”

apikakṣa < apikakṣe < apikakṣa

[noun], locative, singular, masculine


āsani < āsan

[noun], locative, singular, neuter


kratuṃ < kratum < kratu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; decision; plan; deliberation; intelligence; Kratu; will; kratu [word]; desire; resoluteness; ritual.”

dadhikrā < dadhikrāḥ < dadhikrā

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”


[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

pathām < pathin

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“way; road; path [word]; journey; method.”

aṅkāṃsy < aṅkāṃsi < aṅkas

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter


anv < anu


“subsequently; behind; along; towards; because.”

āpanīphaṇat < āpanīphaṇ < √phaṇ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

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