Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.23.10

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तं ये॑मा॒न ऋ॒तमिद्व॑नोत्यृ॒तस्य॒ शुष्म॑स्तुर॒या उ॑ ग॒व्युः । ऋ॒ताय॑ पृ॒थ्वी ब॑हु॒ले ग॑भी॒रे ऋ॒ताय॑ धे॒नू प॑र॒मे दु॑हाते ॥
ऋतं येमान ऋतमिद्वनोत्यृतस्य शुष्मस्तुरया उ गव्युः । ऋताय पृथ्वी बहुले गभीरे ऋताय धेनू परमे दुहाते ॥
ṛtaṃ yemāna ṛtam id vanoty ṛtasya śuṣmas turayā u gavyuḥ | ṛtāya pṛthvī bahule gabhīre ṛtāya dhenū parame duhāte ||

English translation:

“The (worshipper) subjecting ṛta (to his will) verily enjoys ṛta; the strength ṛta is (developed) with speed, and is desirous of (possessing) water; to ṛta belong the wide and profound heaven and earth; supreme kine, they yield their milk to ṛta.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Desirous of possessing water: ṛtasya śuṣmas turayā u gavyuḥ = śuṣmo balam tūrayās tūrṇam gavyuḥ u carthe jalakāmaśca bhavati


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indraṛtadevo vā ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तम् । ये॒मा॒नः । ऋ॒तम् । इत् । व॒नो॒ति॒ । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । शुष्मः॑ । तु॒र॒ऽयाः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । ग॒व्युः । ऋ॒ताय॑ । पृ॒थ्वी इति॑ । ब॒हु॒ले इति॑ । ग॒भी॒रे इति॑ । ऋ॒ताय॑ । धे॒नू इति॑ । प॒र॒मे इति॑ । दु॒हा॒ते॒ इति॑ ॥
ऋतम् । येमानः । ऋतम् । इत् । वनोति । ऋतस्य । शुष्मः । तुरयाः । ऊँ इति । गव्युः । ऋताय । पृथ्वी इति । बहुले इति । गभीरे इति । ऋताय । धेनू इति । परमे इति । दुहाते इति ॥
ṛtam | yemānaḥ | ṛtam | it | vanoti | ṛtasya | śuṣmaḥ | tura-yāḥ | oṃ iti | gavyuḥ | ṛtāya | pṛthvī iti | bahuleiti | gabhīre iti | ṛtāya | dhenū iti | parame iti | duhāteiti

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.23.10 English analysis of grammar]

ṛtaṃ < ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

yemāna < yemānaḥ < yam

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“concentrate; grant; restrain; cause; control; offer; cover; raise.”

ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”



“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

vanoty < vanoti < van

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“obtain; gain; desire; get; like; love; overcome.”

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

śuṣmas < śuṣmaḥ < śuṣma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“vigor; energy; fire; hiss; courage.”

turayā < tura


“powerful; noble; noble.”

turayā < yāḥ <

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine




“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

gavyuḥ < gavyu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

ṛtāya < ṛta

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

pṛthvī < pṛthu

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“broad; wide; great; flat; pṛthu [word]; far.”

bahule < bahula

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“frequent; endowed; much(a); many; abounding in(p); abundant; bahula [word]; accompanied; prevailing.”

gabhīre < gabhīra

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“deep; profound; immeasurable; unfathomable; unfathomable; mysterious; deep; countless.”

ṛtāya < ṛta

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

dhenū < dhenu

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“cow; dhenu [word]; milk.”

parame < parama

[noun], nominative, dual, feminine

“extreme; best; excellent; highest; highest; devoted(p); maximal; distant; parama [word]; very; farthermost.”

duhāte < duh

[verb], dual, Present indikative


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