Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.19.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अतृ॑प्णुवन्तं॒ विय॑तमबु॒ध्यमबु॑ध्यमानं सुषुपा॒णमि॑न्द्र । स॒प्त प्रति॑ प्र॒वत॑ आ॒शया॑न॒महिं॒ वज्रे॑ण॒ वि रि॑णा अप॒र्वन् ॥
अतृप्णुवन्तं वियतमबुध्यमबुध्यमानं सुषुपाणमिन्द्र । सप्त प्रति प्रवत आशयानमहिं वज्रेण वि रिणा अपर्वन् ॥
atṛpṇuvantaṃ viyatam abudhyam abudhyamānaṃ suṣupāṇam indra | sapta prati pravata āśayānam ahiṃ vajreṇa vi riṇā aparvan ||

English translation:

“On the day of full moon you have slain with the thunderbolt the insatiable, unnerved, ignorant, unapprehending, slumbering Ahi, obstructing the gliding-downward-flowing (streams).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

On the day of the full moon: aparvan = paurṇamāsyām (ghnanti vā enam paurṇamāsa : Taittirīya Saṃhitā


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अतृ॑प्णुवन्तम् । विऽय॑तम् । अ॒बु॒ध्यम् । अबु॑ध्यमानम् । सु॒सु॒पा॒णम् । इ॒न्द्र॒ । स॒प्त । प्रति॑ । प्र॒ऽवतः॑ । आ॒शया॑नम् । अहि॑म् । वज्रे॑ण । वि । रि॒णाः॒ । अ॒प॒र्वन् ॥
अतृप्णुवन्तम् । वियतम् । अबुध्यम् । अबुध्यमानम् । सुसुपाणम् । इन्द्र । सप्त । प्रति । प्रवतः । आशयानम् । अहिम् । वज्रेण । वि । रिणाः । अपर्वन् ॥
atṛpṇuvantam | vi-yatam | abudhyam | abudhyamānam | susupāṇam | indra | sapta | prati | pra-vataḥ | āśayānam | ahim | vajreṇa | vi | riṇāḥ | aparvan

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.19.3 English analysis of grammar]

atṛpṇuvantaṃ < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

atṛpṇuvantaṃ < tṛpṇuvantam < tṛp

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“satiate; enjoy; delight.”

viyatam < viyam < √yam

[verb noun], accusative, singular

abudhyam < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

abudhyam < budhyam < budh

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“understand; notice; wake up; observe; detect; attend to; awaken; attend.”

abudhyamānaṃ < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

abudhyamānaṃ < budhyamānam < budh

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“understand; notice; wake up; observe; detect; attend to; awaken; attend.”

suṣupāṇam < svap

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“sleep; numb; fall asleep.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

sapta < saptan

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“seven; seventh.”



“towards; per; regarding; respectively; according to; until.”

pravata < pravataḥ < pravat

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“slope; river.”

āśayānam < āśī < √śī

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“lie; stay.”

ahiṃ < ahim < ahi

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“snake; lead; nāga; Nāga; ahi [word]; Vṛtra.”

vajreṇa < vajra

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“vajra; Vajra; vajra; vajra; lightning; abhra; vajramūṣā; diamond; vajra [word]; vajrakapāṭa; vajra; vaikrānta.”



“apart; away; away.”

riṇā < riṇāḥ < ri

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“free; liberate; run; let go of.”

aparvan < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

aparvan < parvan

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“joint; knot; festival; day; articulation; knot.”

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