Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.18.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

मम॑च्च॒न ते॑ मघव॒न्व्यं॑सो निविवि॒ध्वाँ अप॒ हनू॑ ज॒घान॑ । अधा॒ निवि॑द्ध॒ उत्त॑रो बभू॒वाञ्छिरो॑ दा॒सस्य॒ सं पि॑णग्व॒धेन॑ ॥
ममच्चन ते मघवन्व्यंसो निविविध्वाँ अप हनू जघान । अधा निविद्ध उत्तरो बभूवाञ्छिरो दासस्य सं पिणग्वधेन ॥
mamac cana te maghavan vyaṃso nivividhvām̐ apa hanū jaghāna | adhā nividdha uttaro babhūvāñ chiro dāsasya sam piṇag vadhena ||

English translation:

Vyaṃsa, exulting and striking (hard blows), smote you, Maghavan, upon the jaw; whereupon, being so smitten, you proved the stronger, and did crush the head of the slave with the thunderbolt.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Vyaṃsa: name of a rākṣasa who also attempted to destroy the infant Indra


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indrāditī ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

मम॑त् । च॒न । ते॒ । म॒घ॒ऽव॒न् । विऽअं॑सः । नि॒ऽवि॒वि॒ध्वान् । अप॑ । हनू॒ इति॑ । ज॒घान॑ । अध॑ । निऽवि॑द्धः । उत्ऽत॑रः । ब॒भू॒वान् । शिरः॑ । दा॒सस्य॑ । सम् । पि॒ण॒क् । व॒धेन॑ ॥
ममत् । चन । ते । मघवन् । विअंसः । निविविध्वान् । अप । हनू इति । जघान । अध । निविद्धः । उत्तरः । बभूवान् । शिरः । दासस्य । सम् । पिणक् । वधेन ॥
mamat | cana | te | magha-van | vi-aṃsaḥ | ni-vividhvān | apa | hanūiti | jaghāna | adha | ni-viddhaḥ | ut-taraḥ | babhūvān | śiraḥ | dāsasya | sam | piṇak | vadhena

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.18.9 English analysis of grammar]

mamac < mamat




“not even; cana [word].”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular



[noun], vocative, singular, masculine


vyaṃso < vyaṃsaḥ < vyaṃsa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

nivividhvāṃ < nivyadh < √vyadh

[verb noun], nominative, singular




hanū < hanu

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine


jaghāna < han

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

adhā < adha


“then; and; therefore; now.”

nividdha < nividdhaḥ < nivyadh < √vyadh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

uttaro < uttaraḥ < uttara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“northern; following; upper; additional; better; more(a); last; concluding; superior; later(a); uttara [word]; prevailing; future; left; northerly; northerly; higher; second; dominant; excellent; chief(a).”

babhūvāñchiro < babhūvān < bhū

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“become; be; originate; transform; happen; result; exist; be born; be; be; come to life; grow; elapse; come to mind; thrive; become; impend; show; conceive; understand; stand; constitute; serve; apply; behave.”

babhūvāñchiro < śiraḥ < śiras

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“head; top; peak; battlefront; śiras [word]; beginning; skull.”

dāsasya < dāsa

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“slave; Dāsa; servant; savage; Shudra.”


[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“sam; together; together; saṃ.”

piṇag < piṇak < piṣ

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“grind; knead; paste; crush; press out.”

vadhena < vadha

[noun], instrumental, singular, masculine

“killing; weapon; māraṇa; execution; destruction; vadh-; Vadha; dysfunction; punishment; kick.”

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