Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 4.5.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒दमु॒ त्यन्महि॑ म॒हामनी॑कं॒ यदु॒स्रिया॒ सच॑त पू॒र्व्यं गौः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ प॒दे अधि॒ दीद्या॑नं॒ गुहा॑ रघु॒ष्यद्र॑घु॒यद्वि॑वेद ॥
इदमु त्यन्महि महामनीकं यदुस्रिया सचत पूर्व्यं गौः । ऋतस्य पदे अधि दीद्यानं गुहा रघुष्यद्रघुयद्विवेद ॥
idam u tyan mahi mahām anīkaṃ yad usriyā sacata pūrvyaṃ gauḥ | ṛtasya pade adhi dīdyānaṃ guhā raghuṣyad raghuyad viveda ||

English translation:

“I recognize this adorable assemblage of the great (deities), which from of old the milk-shedding cow affects, shining above the region of water, (the firmament), in secret; swift gliding, swift moving.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Assemblage of the great (deities): mahāmanīkam, the solar orb identified with Vaiśvānara, sūryamaṇḍalam vaiśvānara


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): vaiśvānaraḥ ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒दम् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । त्यत् । महि॑ । म॒हाम् । अनी॑कम् । यत् । उ॒स्रिया॑ । सच॑त । पू॒र्व्यम् । गौः । ऋ॒तस्य॑ । प॒दे । अधि॑ । दीद्या॑नम् । गुहा॑ । र॒घु॒ऽस्यत् । र॒घु॒ऽयत् । वि॒वे॒द॒ ॥
इदम् । ऊँ इति । त्यत् । महि । महाम् । अनीकम् । यत् । उस्रिया । सचत । पूर्व्यम् । गौः । ऋतस्य । पदे । अधि । दीद्यानम् । गुहा । रघुस्यत् । रघुयत् । विवेद ॥
idam | oṃ iti | tyat | mahi | mahām | anīkam | yat | usriyā | sacata | pūrvyam | gauḥ | ṛtasya | pade | adhi | dīdyānam | guhā | raghu-syat | raghu-yat | viveda

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.5.9 English analysis of grammar]


[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

tyan < tyad < tya

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter



[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“great; firm.”

mahām < mah

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“great; great; distinguished; much(a); adult; long; high.”

anīkaṃ < anīkam < anīka

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“army; face; battalion; battlefront; point; appearance.”

yad < yat < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”


[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“cow; dairy product.”

sacata < sac

[verb], singular, Present injunctive

“accompany; follow; company; obey; participate; enter.”

pūrvyaṃ < pūrvyam < pūrvya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“first; precedent; age-old; excellent; former(a).”

gauḥ < go

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“cow; cattle; go [word]; Earth; bull; floor; milk; beam; sunbeam; leather; hide; horn; language; bowstring; earth; ox; Svarga.”

ṛtasya < ṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

pade < pada

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“word; location; foot; footprint; pada [word]; verse; footstep; metrical foot; situation; dwelling; state; step; mark; position; trace; construction; animal foot; way; moment; social station; topographic point; path; residence; site; topic.”



“on; from; accordingly.”

dīdyānaṃ < dīdyānam < dīdī

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“shine; glitter.”





[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

raghuyad < raghu


“low; fast.”

raghuyad < yat < i

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

viveda < vid

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

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