Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 4.2.20

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒ता ते॑ अग्न उ॒चथा॑नि वे॒धोऽवो॑चाम क॒वये॒ ता जु॑षस्व । उच्छो॑चस्व कृणु॒हि वस्य॑सो नो म॒हो रा॒यः पु॑रुवार॒ प्र य॑न्धि ॥
एता ते अग्न उचथानि वेधोऽवोचाम कवये ता जुषस्व । उच्छोचस्व कृणुहि वस्यसो नो महो रायः पुरुवार प्र यन्धि ॥
etā te agna ucathāni vedho 'vocāma kavaye tā juṣasva | uc chocasva kṛṇuhi vasyaso no maho rāyaḥ puruvāra pra yandhi ||

English translation:

“Creator, Agni, we have repeated these your praises to you who are all-wise; do you accept them;blaze aloft; make us opulent; do you who are worshipped by many bestow upon us ample wealth.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ए॒ता । ते॒ । अ॒ग्ने॒ । उ॒चथा॑नि । वे॒धः । अवो॑चाम । क॒वये॑ । ता । जु॒ष॒स्व॒ । उत् । शो॒च॒स्व॒ । कृ॒णु॒हि । वस्य॑सः । नः॒ । म॒हः । रा॒यः । पु॒रु॒ऽवा॒र॒ । प्र । य॒न्धि॒ ॥
एता । ते । अग्ने । उचथानि । वेधः । अवोचाम । कवये । ता । जुषस्व । उत् । शोचस्व । कृणुहि । वस्यसः । नः । महः । रायः । पुरुवार । प्र । यन्धि ॥
etā | te | agne | ucathāni | vedhaḥ | avocāma | kavaye | tā | juṣasva | ut | śocasva | kṛṇuhi | vasyasaḥ | naḥ | mahaḥ | rāyaḥ | puru-vāra | pra | yandhi

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.2.20 English analysis of grammar]

etā < etad

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); etad [word].”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular


agna < agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

ucathāni < ucatha

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter


vedho < vedhaḥ < vedhas

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Brahma; creator; believer [worshipper]; Vishnu.”

'vocāma < avocāma < vac

[verb], plural, Thematic aorist (Ind.)

“say; describe; name; tell; address; enumerate; call; state; teach; explain; say; declare; speak; define; declare; order; address; recommend; answer; deem; recite; approve; proclaim; indicate; determine; mention; designate.”

kavaye < kavi

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“poet; wise man; bard; Venus; Uśanas; kavi [word]; Kavi; prophet; guru; Brahma.”

< tad

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

juṣasva < juṣ

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“enjoy; endow; possess; frequent; accompany; induce; consume; approve; affect; attend; befit; blend; contract.”

ucchocasva < ucchuc < √śuc

[verb], singular, Present imperative

kṛṇuhi < kṛ

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

vasyaso < vasyasaḥ < vasyas

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“better; rich.”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

maho < mahaḥ < mah

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“great; great; distinguished; much(a); adult; long; high.”

rāyaḥ < rai

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“wealth; possession; rai [word]; gold.”

puruvāra < puru


“many; much(a); very.”

puruvāra < vāra

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“treasure; choice.”



“towards; ahead.”

yandhi < yam

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“concentrate; grant; restrain; cause; control; offer; cover; raise.”

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