Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 3.59.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र स मि॑त्र॒ मर्तो॑ अस्तु॒ प्रय॑स्वा॒न्यस्त॑ आदित्य॒ शिक्ष॑ति व्र॒तेन॑ । न ह॑न्यते॒ न जी॑यते॒ त्वोतो॒ नैन॒मंहो॑ अश्नो॒त्यन्ति॑तो॒ न दू॒रात् ॥
प्र स मित्र मर्तो अस्तु प्रयस्वान्यस्त आदित्य शिक्षति व्रतेन । न हन्यते न जीयते त्वोतो नैनमंहो अश्नोत्यन्तितो न दूरात् ॥
pra sa mitra marto astu prayasvān yas ta āditya śikṣati vratena | na hanyate na jīyate tvoto nainam aṃho aśnoty antito na dūrāt ||

English translation:

“May that mortal enjoy abundance, Mitra, who presents you, Āditya, (with offerings) at the sacred rite; protected by you he is not harmed; he is not overcome by any one; son reaches him not, either from afar or nigh.”

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gopavana ātreyaḥ saptavadhrirvā [gopavana ātreya saptavadhrirvā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): mitraḥ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र । सः । मि॒त्र॒ । मर्तः॑ । अ॒स्तु॒ । प्रय॑स्वान् । यः । ते॒ । आ॒दि॒त्य॒ । शिक्ष॑ति । व्र॒तेन॑ । न । ह॒न्य॒ते॒ । न । जी॒य॒ते॒ । त्वाऽऊ॑तः । न । ए॒न॒म् । अंहः॑ । अ॒श्नो॒ति॒ । अन्ति॑तः । न । दू॒रात् ॥
प्र । सः । मित्र । मर्तः । अस्तु । प्रयस्वान् । यः । ते । आदित्य । शिक्षति । व्रतेन । न । हन्यते । न । जीयते । त्वाऊतः । न । एनम् । अंहः । अश्नोति । अन्तितः । न । दूरात् ॥
pra | saḥ | mitra | martaḥ | astu | prayasvān | yaḥ | te | āditya | śikṣati | vratena | na | hanyate | na | jīyate | tvāūtaḥ | na | enam | aṃhaḥ | aśnoti | antitaḥ | na | dūrāt

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.59.2 English analysis of grammar]

pra

[adverb]

“towards; ahead.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

mitra

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“friend; Mitra; mitra [word]; sun; ally.”

marto < martaḥ < marta

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“man.”

astu < as

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

prayasvān < prayasvat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“offering.”

yas < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

ta < te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular

“you.”

āditya

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“sun; Aditya; Surya; āditya [word].”

śikṣati < śikṣ

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“help; give.”

vratena < vrata

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

hanyate < han

[verb], singular, Indikativ Pr¦s. Passiv

“kill; cure; māray; remove; destroy; hit; injure; damage; destroy; paralyze; hurt; forge; beat; cut off; stop; overwhelm; kick; hunt; affect; strike; hammer; love; obstruct; shoot.”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

jīyate < ji

[verb], singular, Indikativ Pr¦s. Passiv

“overcome; cure; win; conquer; control; win; succeed; remove; beat; govern; surpass; suppress.”

tvoto < tvotaḥ < tvota

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

nainam < na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

nainam < enam < enad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.).”

aṃho < aṃhaḥ < aṃhas

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“trouble; sin.”

aśnoty < aśnoti <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“get; reach; enter (a state).”

antito < antitas

[adverb]

“nearby.”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

dūrāt

[adverb]

“far.”

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