Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 3.31.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

न जा॒मये॒ तान्वो॑ रि॒क्थमा॑रैक्च॒कार॒ गर्भं॑ सनि॒तुर्नि॒धान॑म् । यदी॑ मा॒तरो॑ ज॒नय॑न्त॒ वह्नि॑म॒न्यः क॒र्ता सु॒कृतो॑र॒न्य ऋ॒न्धन् ॥
न जामये तान्वो रिक्थमारैक्चकार गर्भं सनितुर्निधानम् । यदी मातरो जनयन्त वह्निमन्यः कर्ता सुकृतोरन्य ऋन्धन् ॥
na jāmaye tānvo riktham āraik cakāra garbhaṃ sanitur nidhānam | yadī mātaro janayanta vahnim anyaḥ kartā sukṛtor anya ṛndhan ||

English translation:

“(A son) born of the body, does not transfer (paternal) wealth to a sister; he has made (her) the recptacle of the embryo of the husband; if the parents procreate children (of either sex), one is the performer of holy acts, the other is to be enriched (with gifts).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Born of the body: tānvaḥ = tanujaḥ na jāmaye riktham āraik, if there be a son the inheritance does not go to the sister, jāmaye, bhaginyai; he has made her the receptacle: and by so doing he makes her sanskṛta-- he secures for her one of the essential purificatory rites; if the parents procreate children: yadi mātaro janayanti vahnim: vahni = offspring, or male offspring, a son;

Avahni = a daughter; one, the son, the performer of obsequial and other rites, is the heir, while the other is rindhan, ridhyamāna, to be increased or made wealthy, with dresses, ornaments and the like; cf. Nirukta 3.4-6

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ, aiṣīrathīḥ kuśiko vā [gāthina viśvāmitra, aiṣīrathīḥ kuśika vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

न । जा॒मये॑ । तान्वः॑ । रि॒क्थम् । अ॒रै॒क् । च॒कार॑ । गर्भ॑म् । स॒नि॒तुः । नि॒ऽधान॑म् । यदि॑ । मा॒तरः॑ । ज॒नय॑न्त । वह्नि॑म् । अ॒न्यः । क॒र्ता । सु॒ऽकृतोः॑ । अ॒न्यः । ऋ॒न्धन् ॥
न । जामये । तान्वः । रिक्थम् । अरैक् । चकार । गर्भम् । सनितुः । निधानम् । यदि । मातरः । जनयन्त । वह्निम् । अन्यः । कर्ता । सुकृतोः । अन्यः । ऋन्धन् ॥
na | jāmaye | tānvaḥ | riktham | araik | cakāra | garbham | sanituḥ | ni-dhānam | yadi | mātaraḥ | janayanta | vahnim | anyaḥ | kartā | su-kṛtoḥ | anyaḥ | ṛndhan

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.31.2 English analysis of grammar]

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

jāmaye < jāmi

[noun], dative, singular, feminine

“sister; woman; daughter-in-law.”

tānvo < tānvaḥ < tānva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

riktham < riktha

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“inheritance; inheritance; property; possession.”

āraik < ric

[verb], singular, Athematic s aor. (Ind.)

“empty; liberate; concede; surrender; purge.”

cakāra < kṛ

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

garbhaṃ < garbham < garbha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fetus; garbha; inside; cavity; embryo; uterus; child; pit; garbhadruti; filling; pregnancy; room; abdomen; fertilization; inside; hole; baby; calyx; midst.”

sanitur < sanituḥ < sanitṛ

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“bestowing; victorious.”

nidhānam < nidhāna

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“hoard; treasure; concealment; deposit.”

yadī < yadi

[adverb]

“if; in case.”

mātaro < mātaraḥ < mātṛ

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“mother; mātṛkā; mātṛ [word]; parent; Salvinia cucullata Roxb.; Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.; cow.”

janayanta < janay < √jan

[verb], plural, Present injunctive

“cause; give birth; produce; beget; generate; originate; create; create; make.”

vahnim < vahni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; digestion; Plumbago zeylanica; Agni; vahni; draft horse; three; sacrificial fire; Vahni; gold; southeast; citron; charioteer; leader.”

anyaḥ < anya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

kartā < kṛ

[verb], singular, periphrast. future

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

sukṛtor < su

[adverb]

“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sukṛtor < kṛtoḥ < kṛt

[noun], genitive, dual, masculine

“causing; making; performing; promotive; producing; doing; acting; writing; transforming; effecting.”

anya < anyaḥ < anya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

ṛndhan < ṛdh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“boom; stick to.”

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