Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 3.26.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निर॑स्मि॒ जन्म॑ना जा॒तवे॑दा घृ॒तं मे॒ चक्षु॑र॒मृतं॑ म आ॒सन् । अ॒र्कस्त्रि॒धातू॒ रज॑सो वि॒मानोऽज॑स्रो घ॒र्मो ह॒विर॑स्मि॒ नाम॑ ॥
अग्निरस्मि जन्मना जातवेदा घृतं मे चक्षुरमृतं म आसन् । अर्कस्त्रिधातू रजसो विमानोऽजस्रो घर्मो हविरस्मि नाम ॥
agnir asmi janmanā jātavedā ghṛtam me cakṣur amṛtam ma āsan | arkas tridhātū rajaso vimāno 'jasro gharmo havir asmi nāma ||

English translation:

“I, Agni, am by birth endowed with knowledge of all that exists; clarified butter is my eye; ambrosia is my mouth; I am the living breath of threefold nature, the measure of the firmament, eternal warmth; I am also the oblation.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Yajus. 18.66; I, Agni, am by birth: agni asmi janmanā jātavedā; clarified butter is my eye: a mystical description of the universality of Agni in the double capacity of the enjoyer and enjoyed, the food and the feeder, and in the three forms of fire, air, and the sun, presiding over earth, mid-heaven, and heaven; the eye of Agni is the light of all, which light is fed by oblations of butter; ambrosia is the reward of pious acts or enjoyment of heaven and the like, which is procurable through oblations to fire, as if through his mouth or countenance, amṛtam me āsan;

Arkastridhātū: arka = jagatsraṣṭā prāṇaḥ, world-creating vital air, which, becoming threefold is vāyu, in the firmament, agni, on earth and āditya as the source of eternal warmth and life. (Aitareya Brāhmaṇa 10.6.5). Another interpretation: as the eye lights up the world, so ghī thrown upon the fire causes it ot burn fiercer and dispense more light;

Amṛta = prabhā, light, light is in my countenance;

Tridhāt = the three vital airs termed prāṇa, apāna and vyāna; the identity with the air and the sun is similarly explained. Yet another interpretation: It is the yajamāna who identifies himself with Agni, saying, I am by birth, Agni, or of this form of Agni, Agni-rūpa, the lord of all that is born, the sacrifice (arka), the three vedas, the measure of the water, the eternal sun; ghī is the eye; i.e., I behold the offerer of ghī on the fire; I convert the oblation that is put into my mouth into ambrosia; thus there is no duality between Agni and the individual, evamātmānyagnyādvaitam


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): ātmā;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agnirātmā vā ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निः । अ॒स्मि॒ । जन्म॑ना । जा॒तऽवे॑दाः । घृ॒तम् । मे॒ । चक्षुः॑ । अ॒मृत॑म् । मे॒ । आ॒सन् । अ॒र्कः । त्रि॒ऽधातुः॑ । रज॑सः । वि॒ऽमानः॑ । अज॑स्रः । घ॒र्मः । ह॒विः । अ॒स्मि॒ । नाम॑ ॥
अग्निः । अस्मि । जन्मना । जातवेदाः । घृतम् । मे । चक्षुः । अमृतम् । मे । आसन् । अर्कः । त्रिधातुः । रजसः । विमानः । अजस्रः । घर्मः । हविः । अस्मि । नाम ॥
agniḥ | asmi | janmanā | jāta-vedāḥ | ghṛtam | me | cakṣuḥ | amṛtam | me | āsan | arkaḥ | tri-dhātuḥ | rajasaḥ | vi-mānaḥ | ajasraḥ | gharmaḥ | haviḥ | asmi | nāma

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.26.7 English analysis of grammar]

agnir < agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

asmi < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

janmanā < janman

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“birth; reincarnation; lineage; origin; race; metempsychosis; parentage; descent; appearance; age; birthplace; beginning; being.”

jātavedā < jātavedāḥ < jātavedas

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Agni; fire.”

ghṛtam < ghṛta

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“ghee; fat.”

me < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”

cakṣur < cakṣuḥ < cakṣus

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“eye; look; visual perception; cakṣus [word]; sight.”

amṛtam < amṛta

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“amṛta; immortality; vatsanābha; ambrosia; mercury; medicine; vighasa; calcium hydroxide.”

ma < me < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”


[noun], locative, singular, neuter


arkas < arkaḥ < arka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Calotropis gigantea Beng.; sun; copper; Surya; hymn; twelve; fire; beam.”

tridhātū < tri


“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

tridhātū < dhātuḥ < dhātu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“mineral; dhātu; saptadhātu; Sanskrit verbal root; etymon; aṣṭaloha; mahābhūta; gairika; component; navadhātu; svarṇamākṣika; doṣa; inorganic compound.”

rajaso < rajasaḥ < rajas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

vimāno < vimānaḥ < vimā < √mā

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“arrange; distribute; barter; measure; fixate.”

'jasro < ajasraḥ < ajasra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“ceaseless; ageless; incessant.”

gharmo < gharmaḥ < gharma

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“sunlight; heat; summer; Gharma; Gharma; boiler; perspiration; caldron.”

havir < haviḥ < havis

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“Havya; offering; ghee; havis [word].”

asmi < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”



“by name; indeed; however; indeed.”

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