Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 3.24.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॑ द्यु॒म्नेन॑ जागृवे॒ सह॑सः सूनवाहुत । एदं ब॒र्हिः स॑दो॒ मम॑ ॥
अग्ने द्युम्नेन जागृवे सहसः सूनवाहुत । एदं बर्हिः सदो मम ॥
agne dyumnena jāgṛve sahasaḥ sūnav āhuta | edam barhiḥ sado mama ||

English translation:

Agni, son of strength, vigilant (in the exercise of) your energy, take your seat when invoked on the sacred grass (strewn at) my (sacrifice).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Vigilant: dyumnena jāgṛve = svatejasā sarvadā jāgaraṇopeta (jāgṛvir jāgaraṇāt: Nirukta 9.8), always endowed with his vigilance by own lustre or energy, loka-rakṣārtham, for the preservation of the world


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gopavana ātreyaḥ saptavadhrirvā [gopavana ātreya saptavadhrirvā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): gāyatrī;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॑ । द्यु॒म्नेन॑ । जा॒गृ॒वे॒ । सह॑सः । सू॒नो॒ इति॑ । आ॒ऽहु॒त॒ । आ । इ॒दम् । ब॒र्हिः । स॒दः॒ । मम॑ ॥
अग्ने । द्युम्नेन । जागृवे । सहसः । सूनो इति । आहुत । आ । इदम् । बर्हिः । सदः । मम ॥
agne | dyumnena | jāgṛve | sahasaḥ | sūno iti | āhuta | ā | idam | barhiḥ | sadaḥ | mama

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.24.3 English analysis of grammar]

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

dyumnena < dyumna

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter


jāgṛve < jāgṛvi

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“attentive; argus-eyed; light.”

sahasaḥ < sahas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“force; strength; might; sahas [word]; conquest.”

sūnav < sūno < sūnu

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“son; offspring.”

āhuta < āhu < √hu

[verb noun], vocative, singular

“sacrifice; sprinkle.”

edam < ā


“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

edam < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

barhiḥ < barhis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Barhis; barhis [word].”

sado < sada < sad

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”

sado < u


“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

mama < mad

[noun], genitive, singular

“I; mine.”

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