Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.20.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निर्ने॒ता भग॑ इव क्षिती॒नां दैवी॑नां दे॒व ऋ॑तु॒पा ऋ॒तावा॑ । स वृ॑त्र॒हा स॒नयो॑ वि॒श्ववे॑दा॒: पर्ष॒द्विश्वाति॑ दुरि॒ता गृ॒णन्त॑म् ॥
अग्निर्नेता भग इव क्षितीनां दैवीनां देव ऋतुपा ऋतावा । स वृत्रहा सनयो विश्ववेदाः पर्षद्विश्वाति दुरिता गृणन्तम् ॥
agnir netā bhaga iva kṣitīnāṃ daivīnāṃ deva ṛtupā ṛtāvā | sa vṛtrahā sanayo viśvavedāḥ parṣad viśvāti duritā gṛṇantam ||

English translation:

“The divine Agni is the guide of devout men, as the sun is the regulator of the seasons; may he, the observer of truth, the slayer of Vṛtra, the ancient, the omniscient convey his adorer (safe) over all difficulties.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthī kauśikaḥ [gāthī kauśika];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निः । ने॒ता । भगः॑ऽइव । क्षि॒ती॒नाम् । दैवी॑नाम् । दे॒वः । ऋ॒तु॒ऽपाः । ऋ॒तऽवा॑ । सः । वृ॒त्र॒ऽहा । स॒नयः॑ । वि॒श्वऽवे॑दाः । पर्ष॑त् । विश्वा॑ । अति॑ । दुः॒ऽइ॒ता । गृ॒णन्त॑म् ॥
अग्निः । नेता । भगःइव । क्षितीनाम् । दैवीनाम् । देवः । ऋतुपाः । ऋतवा । सः । वृत्रहा । सनयः । विश्ववेदाः । पर्षत् । विश्वा । अति । दुःइता । गृणन्तम् ॥
agniḥ | netā | bhagaḥ-iva | kṣitīnām | daivīnām | devaḥ | ṛtu-pāḥ | ṛta-vā | saḥ | vṛtra-hā | sanayaḥ | viśva-vedāḥ | parṣat | viśvā | ati | duḥ-itā | gṛṇantam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.20.4 English analysis of grammar]

agnir < agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

netā < netṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“leader; Vitex negundo.”

bhaga < bhagaḥ < bhaga

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Bhaga; vulva; good fortune; vagina; bhaga [word]; sun; well-being; happiness; overlord.”



“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

kṣitīnāṃ < kṣitīnām < kṣiti

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī; people; dwelling; battlefield; Earth; estate; colony; house.”

daivīnāṃ < daivīnām < daiva

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“divine; religious.”

deva < devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

ṛtupā < ṛtu

[noun], masculine

“season; turn; menstruation; ṛtu [word]; time period; order; six.”

ṛtupā < pāḥ <

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


ṛtāvā < ṛtāvan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“law-abiding; faithful; righteous.”

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

vṛtrahā < vṛtra

[noun], masculine

“Vṛtra; vṛtra [word].”

vṛtrahā < < han

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“killing; curative; destroying; removing; māraka; stabbing.”

sanayo < sanayaḥ < sanaya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“age-old; old.”

viśvavedāḥ < viśva


“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

viśvavedāḥ < vedāḥ < vedas

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


parṣad < parṣat < pṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist conj./subj.

“protect; promote; rescue; help.”

viśvāti < viśvā < viśva

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

viśvāti < ati


“very; excessively; beyond; excessively.”

duritā < durita

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“danger; sin; difficulty; difficulty; evil.”

gṛṇantam < gṛ

[verb noun], accusative, singular


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