Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.4.10

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वन॑स्प॒तेऽव॑ सृ॒जोप॑ दे॒वान॒ग्निर्ह॒विः श॑मि॒ता सू॑दयाति । सेदु॒ होता॑ स॒त्यत॑रो यजाति॒ यथा॑ दे॒वानां॒ जनि॑मानि॒ वेद॑ ॥
वनस्पतेऽव सृजोप देवानग्निर्हविः शमिता सूदयाति । सेदु होता सत्यतरो यजाति यथा देवानां जनिमानि वेद ॥
vanaspate 'va sṛjopa devān agnir haviḥ śamitā sūdayāti | sed u hotā satyataro yajāti yathā devānāṃ janimāni veda ||

English translation:

Vanaspati, bring the gods nigh; may Agni, the immolator, prepare the victim; let him who is truth officiate as the ministering priest, for, verily, he knows the birth of the gods.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

May Agni the immolator: agnir haviḥ śamitā sūdayāti: cf. RV 2.3


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ [gāthina viśvāmitra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): āpriyaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

वन॑स्पते । अव॑ । सृ॒ज॒ । उप॑ । दे॒वान् । अ॒ग्निः । ह॒विः । श॒मि॒ता । सू॒द॒या॒ति॒ । सः । इत् । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । होता॑ । स॒त्यऽत॑रः । य॒जा॒ति॒ । यथा॑ । दे॒वाना॑म् । जनि॑मानि । वेद॑ ॥
वनस्पते । अव । सृज । उप । देवान् । अग्निः । हविः । शमिता । सूदयाति । सः । इत् । ऊँ इति । होता । सत्यतरः । यजाति । यथा । देवानाम् । जनिमानि । वेद ॥
vanaspate | ava | sṛja | upa | devān | agniḥ | haviḥ | śamitā | sūdayāti | saḥ | it | oṃ iti | hotā | satya-taraḥ | yajāti | yathā | devānām | janimāni | veda

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.4.10 English analysis of grammar]

vanaspate < vanaspati

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“tree; banyan; vanaspati [word]; vanaspativarga; vaṭādi.”

'va < ava



sṛjopa < sṛja < sṛj

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“create; shoot; discharge; free; cause; throw; emit; send; produce; use; be born; make.”

sṛjopa < upa


“towards; on; next.”

devān < deva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

agnir < agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

haviḥ < havis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Havya; offering; ghee; havis [word].”

śamitā < śamitṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“śamitṛ [word]; butcher.”

sūdayāti < sūday < √sūd

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“kill; promote.”

sed < sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

sed < id


“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

hotā < hotṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


satyataro < satyataraḥ < satyatara

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

yajāti < yaj

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“sacrifice; worship; worship.”



“equally; as; so that; like; how; yathā [word]; that; wherein.”

devānāṃ < devānām < deva

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

janimāni < janiman

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“birth; offspring; origin; kind; being.”

veda < vid

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“know; diagnose; perceive; know; accord; notice; deem; mind; learn; specify; watch; recognize; detect; call.”

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: