Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.4.4

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऊ॒र्ध्वो वां॑ गा॒तुर॑ध्व॒रे अ॑कार्यू॒र्ध्वा शो॒चींषि॒ प्रस्थि॑ता॒ रजां॑सि । दि॒वो वा॒ नाभा॒ न्य॑सादि॒ होता॑ स्तृणी॒महि॑ दे॒वव्य॑चा॒ वि ब॒र्हिः ॥
ऊर्ध्वो वां गातुरध्वरे अकार्यूर्ध्वा शोचींषि प्रस्थिता रजांसि । दिवो वा नाभा न्यसादि होता स्तृणीमहि देवव्यचा वि बर्हिः ॥
ūrdhvo vāṃ gātur adhvare akāry ūrdhvā śocīṃṣi prasthitā rajāṃsi | divo vā nābhā ny asādi hotā stṛṇīmahi devavyacā vi barhiḥ ||

English translation:

“An upward path has been prepared for you both in the sacrifice; the blazing oblations soar aloft; the invoker of the gods has sat down in the centre of the radiant (hall); let us strew the sacred grass for the seats of the gods.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

You both: Agni and the Barhis, or sacred grass, to which, as in the parallel pages, the hymn is addressed


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ [gāthina viśvāmitra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): āpriyaḥ;
Chandas (meter): svarāṭpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऊ॒र्ध्वः । वा॒म् । गा॒तुः । अ॒ध्व॒रे । अ॒का॒रि॒ । ऊ॒र्ध्वा । शो॒चींषि॑ । प्रस्थि॑ता । रजां॑सि । दि॒वः । वा॒ । नाभा॑ । नि । अ॒सा॒दि॒ । होता॑ । स्तृ॒णी॒महि॑ । दे॒वऽव्य॑चाः । वि । ब॒र्हिः ॥
ऊर्ध्वः । वाम् । गातुः । अध्वरे । अकारि । ऊर्ध्वा । शोचींषि । प्रस्थिता । रजांसि । दिवः । वा । नाभा । नि । असादि । होता । स्तृणीमहि । देवव्यचाः । वि । बर्हिः ॥
ūrdhvaḥ | vām | gātuḥ | adhvare | akāri | ūrdhvā | śocīṃṣi | prasthitā | rajāṃsi | divaḥ | vā | nābhā | ni | asādi | hotā | stṛṇīmahi | deva-vyacāḥ | vi | barhiḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.4.4 English analysis of grammar]

ūrdhvo < ūrdhvaḥ < ūrdhva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“upper; up(a); upper; upward; erect; more(a); raised; ūrdhva [word]; acclivitous; overturned; loud; eminent; high.”

vāṃ < vām < tvad

[noun], genitive, dual


gātur < gātuḥ < gātu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“path; way.”

adhvare < adhvara

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”

akāry < akāri < kṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist passive

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

ūrdhvā < ūrdhva

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“upper; up(a); upper; upward; erect; more(a); raised; ūrdhva [word]; acclivitous; overturned; loud; eminent; high.”

śocīṃṣi < śocis

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“fire; flare; burn; radiance.”

prasthitā < prasthā < √sthā

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“depart; give; depart; go; stay; proceed.”

rajāṃsi < rajas

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

divo < divaḥ < div

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”


“or; optionally; either.”

nābhā < nābhi

[noun], locative, singular, feminine

“navel; hub; kinship; beginning; origin; umbilical cord; nābhi [word]; friendship; center.”

ny < ni


“back; down.”

asādi < sad

[verb], singular, Aorist passive

“sit down; break down; slow; sink; crumble; fracture; perish; ride; stop; besiege; tire.”

hotā < hotṛ

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


stṛṇīmahi < stṛ

[verb], plural, Imperfect

“spread; kill; lay; cover.”

devavyacā < deva

[noun], masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

devavyacā < vyacāḥ < vyacas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“area; capacity.”



“apart; away; away.”

barhiḥ < barhis

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Barhis; barhis [word].”

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