Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 3.4.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यं दे॒वास॒स्त्रिरह॑न्ना॒यज॑न्ते दि॒वेदि॑वे॒ वरु॑णो मि॒त्रो अ॒ग्निः । सेमं य॒ज्ञं मधु॑मन्तं कृधी न॒स्तनू॑नपाद्घृ॒तयो॑निं वि॒धन्त॑म् ॥
यं देवासस्त्रिरहन्नायजन्ते दिवेदिवे वरुणो मित्रो अग्निः । सेमं यज्ञं मधुमन्तं कृधी नस्तनूनपाद्घृतयोनिं विधन्तम् ॥
yaṃ devāsas trir ahann āyajante dive-dive varuṇo mitro agniḥ | semaṃ yajñam madhumantaṃ kṛdhī nas tanūnapād ghṛtayoniṃ vidhantam ||

English translation:

Tanūnapāt, whom the deities, Mitra, Varuṇa and Agni, worship daily thrice a day, render this our sacred rain-engendering sacrifice productive of water.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthino viśvāmitraḥ [gāthina viśvāmitra];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): āpriyaḥ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यम् । दे॒वासः॑ । त्रिः । अह॑न् । आ॒ऽयज॑न्ते । दि॒वेऽदि॑वे । वरु॑णः । मि॒त्रः । अ॒ग्निः । सः । इ॒मम् । य॒ज्ञम् । मधु॑ऽमन्तम् । कृ॒धि॒ । नः॒ । तनू॑ऽनपात् । घृ॒तऽयो॑निम् । वि॒धन्त॑म् ॥
यम् । देवासः । त्रिः । अहन् । आयजन्ते । दिवेदिवे । वरुणः । मित्रः । अग्निः । सः । इमम् । यज्ञम् । मधुमन्तम् । कृधि । नः । तनूनपात् । घृतयोनिम् । विधन्तम् ॥
yam | devāsaḥ | triḥ | ahan | āyajante | dive--dive | varuṇaḥ | mitraḥ | agniḥ | saḥ | imam | yajñam | madhu-mantam | kṛdhi | naḥ | tanū-napāt | ghṛta-yonim | vidhantam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.4.2 English analysis of grammar]

yaṃ < yam < yad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

devāsas < devāsaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

trir < tris


“thrice; tris [word].”

ahann < ahan < ahar

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”

āyajante < āyaj < √yaj

[verb], plural, Present indikative

dive < diva

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“day; sky; Svarga.”

dive < diva

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“day; sky; Svarga.”

varuṇo < varuṇaḥ < varuṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

mitro < mitraḥ < mitra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; Mitra; mitra [word]; sun; ally.”

agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

semaṃ < sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

semaṃ < imam < idam

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

yajñam < yajña

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; religious ceremony; Vishnu; yajña [word]; Yajña; Shiva.”

madhumantaṃ < madhumantam < madhumat

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“sweet; honeyed; sweet; pleasant.”

kṛdhī < kṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

nas < naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

tanūnapād < tanūnapāt

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine


ghṛtayoniṃ < ghṛta

[noun], neuter

“ghee; fat.”

ghṛtayoniṃ < yonim < yoni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“vagina; vulva; uterus; beginning; origin; reincarnation; birthplace; family; production; cause; race; grain; raw material; birth; kind; caste; kinship; bed.”

vidhantam < vidh

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“worship; offer.”

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