Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.40.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सोमा॑पूषणा॒ रज॑सो वि॒मानं॑ स॒प्तच॑क्रं॒ रथ॒मवि॑श्वमिन्वम् । वि॒षू॒वृतं॒ मन॑सा यु॒ज्यमा॑नं॒ तं जि॑न्वथो वृषणा॒ पञ्च॑रश्मिम् ॥
सोमापूषणा रजसो विमानं सप्तचक्रं रथमविश्वमिन्वम् । विषूवृतं मनसा युज्यमानं तं जिन्वथो वृषणा पञ्चरश्मिम् ॥
somāpūṣaṇā rajaso vimānaṃ saptacakraṃ ratham aviśvaminvam | viṣūvṛtam manasā yujyamānaṃ taṃ jinvatho vṛṣaṇā pañcaraśmim ||

English translation:

Soma and Pūṣaṇ, showerers (of benefits)m direct towards us the seven-wheeled car, the measure of the spheres, undistinguishable from the universe, everywhere existing, (guided) by five reins, and to be harnessed by the mind.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The seven-wheeled car: sapra-cakra, the year, of seven seasons, reckoning the intercalary month as an additional ṛtu or season; five reins: again, a reference to the solar year, reduced by the amalgamation of the cold and dewy seasons into one, to five seasons: dvādaśa vai māsāḥ pañcartavo hemantaśiśirayoḥ samāsena, the twelve months are verily five seasons by the combination of the cold and dewy seasons


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): somāpūṣaṇāvaditiśca ;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सोमा॑पूषणा । रज॑सः । वि॒ऽमान॑म् । स॒प्तऽच॑क्रम् । रथ॑म् । अवि॑श्वऽमिन्वम् । वि॒षु॒ऽवृत॑म् । मन॑सा । यु॒ज्यमा॑नम् । तम् । जि॒न्व॒थः॒ । वृ॒ष॒णा॒ । पञ्च॑ऽरश्मिम् ॥
सोमापूषणा । रजसः । विमानम् । सप्तचक्रम् । रथम् । अविश्वमिन्वम् । विषुवृतम् । मनसा । युज्यमानम् । तम् । जिन्वथः । वृषणा । पञ्चरश्मिम् ॥
somāpūṣaṇā | rajasaḥ | vi-mānam | sapta-cakram | ratham | aviśva-minvam | viṣu-vṛtam | manasā | yujyamānam | tam | jinvathaḥ | vṛṣaṇā | pañca-raśmim

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.40.3 English analysis of grammar]

somāpūṣaṇā < somāpūṣan

[noun], vocative, dual, masculine

rajaso < rajasaḥ < rajas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

vimānaṃ < vimānam < vimā < √mā

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“arrange; distribute; barter; measure; fixate.”

saptacakraṃ < sapta < saptan


“seven; seventh.”

saptacakraṃ < cakram < cakra

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“wheel; Cakra; discus; army; cakra; oil mill; cakrikā; cakra; group.”

ratham < ratha

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“chariot; warrior; ratha [word]; Dalbergia oojeinensis; rattan.”

aviśvaminvam < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

aviśvaminvam < viśvaminvam < viśvaminva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

viṣūvṛtam < viṣūvṛt

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

manasā < manas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“mind; Manas; purpose; idea; attention; heart; decision; manas [word]; manas [indecl.]; spirit; temper; intelligence.”

yujyamānaṃ < yujyamānam < yuj

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“mix; use; endow; yoke; accompany; to practice Yoga; connect; hire; administer; compound; affect; add; concentrate; unite; join; prosecute; combine; supply; compound; attach to; appoint; fill; process; mobilize; mount; complement; eat; join; treat; coincide; affect; challenge.”

taṃ < tam < tad

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

jinvatho < jinvathaḥ < jinv

[verb], dual, Present indikative

“enliven; animate.”

vṛṣaṇā < vṛṣan

[noun], nominative, dual, masculine

“bull; Indra; stallion; Vṛṣan; man.”

pañcaraśmim < pañca < pañcan


“five; fifth; pañcan [word].”

pañcaraśmim < raśmim < raśmi

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“beam; rein; sunbeam; shininess; cord.”

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