Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.30.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तं दे॒वाय॑ कृण्व॒ते स॑वि॒त्र इन्द्रा॑याहि॒घ्ने न र॑मन्त॒ आप॑: । अह॑रहर्यात्य॒क्तुर॒पां किया॒त्या प्र॑थ॒मः सर्ग॑ आसाम् ॥
ऋतं देवाय कृण्वते सवित्र इन्द्रायाहिघ्ने न रमन्त आपः । अहरहर्यात्यक्तुरपां कियात्या प्रथमः सर्ग आसाम् ॥
ṛtaṃ devāya kṛṇvate savitra indrāyāhighne na ramanta āpaḥ | ahar-ahar yāty aktur apāṃ kiyāty ā prathamaḥ sarga āsām ||

English translation:

“The waters cease not (to flow in libations) to the divine Indra, the sender of rain, the animator (of all), the slayer of Ahi; day by day proceeds the current of the waters; at what period of time was their first creation.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

The animator of all: savitre = to the sun, as one with Indra; this may also be rendered as sarvasya prerakāya, to the instrumental gator, impeller, or animator of all; at what period of time: nityā eva hi tā ityarthaḥ, the drift of the question is the non-creation or eternity of the waters


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gṛtsamadaḥ śaunakaḥ [gṛtsamada śaunaka];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bhurikpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ऋ॒तम् । दे॒वाय॑ । कृ॒ण्व॒ते । स॒वि॒त्रे । इन्द्रा॑य । अ॒हि॒ऽघ्ने । न । र॒म॒न्ते॒ । आपः॑ । अहः॑ऽअहः । या॒ति॒ । अ॒क्तुः । अ॒पाम् । किय॑ति । आ । प्र॒थ॒मः । सर्गः॑ । आ॒सा॒म् ॥
ऋतम् । देवाय । कृण्वते । सवित्रे । इन्द्राय । अहिघ्ने । न । रमन्ते । आपः । अहःअहः । याति । अक्तुः । अपाम् । कियति । आ । प्रथमः । सर्गः । आसाम् ॥
ṛtam | devāya | kṛṇvate | savitre | indrāya | ahi-ghne | na | ramante | āpaḥ | ahaḥ-ahaḥ | yāti | aktuḥ | apām | kiyati | ā | prathamaḥ | sargaḥ | āsām

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.30.1 English analysis of grammar]

ṛtaṃ < ṛtam < ṛta

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

devāya < deva

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

kṛṇvate < kṛ

[verb noun], dative, singular

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

savitra < savitre < savitṛ

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“Savitar; sun; Surya; Savitṛ.”

indrāyāhighne < indrāya < indra

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

indrāyāhighne < ahi

[noun], masculine

“snake; lead; nāga; Nāga; ahi [word]; Vṛtra.”

indrāyāhighne < ghne < han

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“killing; curative; destroying; removing; māraka; stabbing.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

ramanta < ramante < ram

[verb], plural, Present indikative

“delight; rejoice; love; frolic; desire; give; calm; break.”

āpaḥ < ap

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”


[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“day; day; ahar [word]; day; day.”

yāty < yāti <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“go; enter (a state); travel; disappear; reach; come; campaign; elapse; arrive; drive; reach; leave; run; depart; ride.”

aktur < aktuḥ < aktu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“night; dark; beam.”

apāṃ < apām < ap

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”

kiyāty < kiyāti < kiyat

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“some(a); some(a).”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

prathamaḥ < prathama

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“first; prathama [word]; third; young; chief(a); best; antecedent.”

sarga < sargaḥ < sarga

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Creation; metempsychosis; discharge; torrent; birth; undertaking.”

āsām < idam

[noun], genitive, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

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