Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.28.10

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यो मे॑ राज॒न्युज्यो॑ वा॒ सखा॑ वा॒ स्वप्ने॑ भ॒यं भी॒रवे॒ मह्य॒माह॑ । स्ते॒नो वा॒ यो दिप्स॑ति नो॒ वृको॑ वा॒ त्वं तस्मा॑द्वरुण पाह्य॒स्मान् ॥
यो मे राजन्युज्यो वा सखा वा स्वप्ने भयं भीरवे मह्यमाह । स्तेनो वा यो दिप्सति नो वृको वा त्वं तस्माद्वरुण पाह्यस्मान् ॥
yo me rājan yujyo vā sakhā vā svapne bhayam bhīrave mahyam āha | steno vā yo dipsati no vṛko vā tvaṃ tasmād varuṇa pāhy asmān ||

English translation:

“Protect us, Varuṇa, against every peril which a kinsman or a friend threatens me with alarmed in sleep; or from a thief or a wolf that attempts to destroy us.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Mahyam = to me, in the singular (first line);

Asmam = us, in the plural ral (second line); this hymn is said to remove sin and danger, debt and poverty and counteract bad dreams: idam ekādaśarcam tu varuṇqam bhayapāpanut ṛnadāridryā duḥ svapnanāśanam it śuśruma

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kūrmo gārtsamado gṛtsamado vā [kūrma gārtsamada gṛtsamada vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): bhurikpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

यः । मे॒ । रा॒ज॒न् । युज्यः॑ । वा॒ । सखा॑ । वा॒ । स्वप्ने॑ । भ॒यम् । भी॒रवे॑ । मह्य॑म् । आह॑ । स्ते॒नः । वा॒ । यः । दिप्स॑ति । नः॒ । वृकः॑ । वा॒ । त्वम् । तस्मा॑त् । व॒रु॒ण॒ । पा॒हि॒ । अ॒स्मान् ॥
यः । मे । राजन् । युज्यः । वा । सखा । वा । स्वप्ने । भयम् । भीरवे । मह्यम् । आह । स्तेनः । वा । यः । दिप्सति । नः । वृकः । वा । त्वम् । तस्मात् । वरुण । पाहि । अस्मान् ॥
yaḥ | me | rājan | yujyaḥ | vā | sakhā | vā | svapne | bhayam | bhīrave | mahyam | āha | stenaḥ | vā | yaḥ | dipsati | naḥ | vṛkaḥ | vā | tvam | tasmāt | varuṇa | pāhi | asmān

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.28.10 English analysis of grammar]

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

me < mad

[noun], dative, singular

“I; mine.”

rājan

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“king; Kshatriya; rājan [word]; best; rājāvarta; Yakṣa.”

yujyo < yujyaḥ < yujya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“adequate to(p); appropriate; united; allied.”

[adverb]

“or; optionally; either.”

sakhā < sakhi

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“friend; companion; sakhi [word].”

[adverb]

“or; optionally; either.”

svapne < svapna

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“dream; sleep.”

bhayam < bhaya

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“fear; danger; danger; bhaya [word]; distress; apprehension; alarm; apprehension.”

bhīrave < bhīru

[noun], dative, singular, masculine

“timid; afraid(p); bhīru [word]; cowardly; fearful.”

mahyam < mad

[noun], dative, singular

“I; mine.”

āha < ah

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“describe; state; say; enumerate; call; name; teach; tell; deem; explain; say; define.”

steno < stenaḥ < stena

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“thief; stena [word].”

[adverb]

“or; optionally; either.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

dipsati < dips < √dabh

[verb], singular, Present indikative

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

vṛko < vṛkaḥ < vṛka

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“wolf; Vṛka; vṛka [word]; Vṛka.”

[adverb]

“or; optionally; either.”

tvaṃ < tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular

“you.”

tasmād < tasmāt < tad

[noun], ablative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

varuṇa

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

pāhy < pāhi <

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“protect; govern.”

asmān < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

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