Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.28.9

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

पर॑ ऋ॒णा सा॑वी॒रध॒ मत्कृ॑तानि॒ माहं रा॑जन्न॒न्यकृ॑तेन भोजम् । अव्यु॑ष्टा॒ इन्नु भूय॑सीरु॒षास॒ आ नो॑ जी॒वान्व॑रुण॒ तासु॑ शाधि ॥
पर ऋणा सावीरध मत्कृतानि माहं राजन्नन्यकृतेन भोजम् । अव्युष्टा इन्नु भूयसीरुषास आ नो जीवान्वरुण तासु शाधि ॥
para ṛṇā sāvīr adha matkṛtāni māhaṃ rājann anyakṛtena bhojam | avyuṣṭā in nu bhūyasīr uṣāsa ā no jīvān varuṇa tāsu śādhi ||

English translation:

“Discharge, Varuṇa, the debts (contracted), by my progenitors, and those now (contracted) by me; and may I not, royal Varuṇa, be dependent (on the debts contracted) by another; many are the mornings that have, as it were, indeed not dawned; make us, Varuṇa, alive in them.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

May I not be dependent: māham rājannanyakṛtena bhojam = lit. may I not enjoy by what is made by another; i.e., may I not obtain enjoyment by the wealth that is acquired by another; but,mat-kṛtāni, made by me, refers to ṛṇa (for ṛṇāni, debts); many are the mornings: avyuṣṭā innu bhūyasīruṣāsaḥ ā no jīvān tāsu śādhi = liṭ, unrisen, verily indeed, many morning dawns, make us alive in them; i.e., person ns involved in debt are so overcome with anxiety that they are not conscious of the dawn of day, to them the morning has not dawned, they are dead tothe light of day

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kūrmo gārtsamado gṛtsamado vā [kūrma gārtsamada gṛtsamada vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

परा॑ । ऋ॒णा । सा॒वीः॒ । अध॑ । मत्ऽकृ॑तानि । मा । अ॒हम् । रा॒ज॒न् । अ॒न्यऽकृ॑तेन । भो॒ज॒म् । अवि॑ऽउष्टाः । इत् । नु । भूय॑सीः । उ॒षसः॑ । आ । नः॒ । जी॒वान् । व॒रु॒ण॒ । तासु॑ । शा॒धि॒ ॥
परा । ऋणा । सावीः । अध । मत्कृतानि । मा । अहम् । राजन् । अन्यकृतेन । भोजम् । अविउष्टाः । इत् । नु । भूयसीः । उषसः । आ । नः । जीवान् । वरुण । तासु । शाधि ॥
parā | ṛṇā | sāvīḥ | adha | mat-kṛtāni | mā | aham | rājan | anya-kṛtena | bhojam | av i-uṣṭāḥ | it | nu | bhūyasīḥ | uṣasaḥ | ā | naḥ | jīvān | varuṇa | tāsu | śādhi

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.28.9 English analysis of grammar]

para < paras

[adverb]

“beyond; away; farther.”

ṛṇā < ṛṇa

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“debt; debt; ṛṇa [word].”

sāvīr < sāvīḥ <

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“give birth; urge; bestow; cause.”

adha

[adverb]

“then; and; therefore; now.”

matkṛtāni < mad

[noun]

“I; mine.”

matkṛtāni < kṛtāni < kṛ

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

māhaṃ <

[adverb]

“not.”

māhaṃ < aham < mad

[noun], nominative, singular

“I; mine.”

rājann < rājan

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“king; Kshatriya; rājan [word]; best; rājāvarta; Yakṣa.”

anyakṛtena < anya

[noun]

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”

anyakṛtena < kṛtena < kṛ

[verb noun], instrumental, singular

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

bhojam < bhuj

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“eat; enjoy; consume; eat; love; burn; run down; enjoy; live on.”

avyuṣṭā < a

[adverb]

“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

avyuṣṭā < vyuṣṭāḥ < vivas < √vas

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“spend; dwell.”

in < id

[adverb]

“indeed; assuredly; entirely.”

nu

[adverb]

“now; already.”

bhūyasīr < bhūyasīḥ < bhūyas

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“more(a); more(a); abounding in(p); stronger; bigger.”

uṣāsa < uṣāsaḥ < uṣa

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“dawn.”

ā

[adverb]

“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

no < naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

jīvān < jīva

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“live; alive(p); amṛta.”

varuṇa

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

tāsu < tad

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

śādhi < śās

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“teach; govern; command; order; control; tell; recommend; chastize; instruct.”

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