Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.28.8

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

नम॑: पु॒रा ते॑ वरुणो॒त नू॒नमु॒ताप॒रं तु॑विजात ब्रवाम । त्वे हि कं॒ पर्व॑ते॒ न श्रि॒तान्यप्र॑च्युतानि दूळभ व्र॒तानि॑ ॥
नमः पुरा ते वरुणोत नूनमुतापरं तुविजात ब्रवाम । त्वे हि कं पर्वते न श्रितान्यप्रच्युतानि दूळभ व्रतानि ॥
namaḥ purā te varuṇota nūnam utāparaṃ tuvijāta bravāma | tve hi kam parvate na śritāny apracyutāni dūḻabha vratāni ||

English translation:

“As we have offered adoration to you, Varuṇa, of old, in like manner as we offer it now, so may we offer it in future (to you), who are everywhere present; for in you, who are difficult of attainment, as in an (immoveable) mountain, all holy acts are assembled, and are not to be dissevered.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kūrmo gārtsamado gṛtsamado vā [kūrma gārtsamada gṛtsamada vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

नमः॑ । पु॒रा । ते॒ । व॒रु॒ण॒ । उ॒त । नू॒नम् । उ॒त । अ॒प॒रम् । तु॒वि॒ऽजा॒त॒ । ब्र॒वा॒म॒ । त्वे इति॑ । हि । क॒म् । पर्व॑ते । न । श्रि॒तानि॑ । अप्र॑ऽच्युतानि । दुः॒ऽद॒भ॒ । व्र॒तानि॑ ॥
नमः । पुरा । ते । वरुण । उत । नूनम् । उत । अपरम् । तुविजात । ब्रवाम । त्वे इति । हि । कम् । पर्वते । न । श्रितानि । अप्रच्युतानि । दुःदभ । व्रतानि ॥
namaḥ | purā | te | varuṇa | uta | nūnam | uta | aparam | tuvi-jāta | bravāma | tve iti | hi | kam | parvate | na | śritāni | apra-cyutāni | duḥ-dabha | vratāni

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.28.8 English analysis of grammar]

namaḥ < namas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“adoration; court; namas [word]; bow; salute.”



“once; earlier; first; purā [indecl.].”

te < tvad

[noun], dative, singular


varuṇota < varuṇa

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

varuṇota < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”



“now; surely; immediately; just.”

utāparaṃ < uta


“and; besides; uta [indecl.]; similarly; alike; even.”

utāparaṃ < aparam < apara

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“other; another(a); following; western; future; apara [word]; elder; remaining; some(a); later(a); back(a).”

tuvijāta < tuvi

[noun], feminine

tuvijāta < jāta < jan

[verb noun], vocative, singular

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

bravāma < brū

[verb], plural, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“say; tell; describe; speak; state; answer; call; explain; address; proclaim; talk; talk; choose.”

tve < tvad

[noun], locative, singular




“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

kam < kaṃ


“kaṃ [word].”

parvate < parvata

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“mountain; Parvata; parvata [word]; Parvata; Parvata; rock; height.”



“not; like; no; na [word].”

śritāny < śritāni < śri

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“situate; dwell; go; lurk; reach; rear; repose; cling to.”

apracyutāni < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

apracyutāni < pracyutāni < pracyu < √cyu

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“fall down.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

vratāni < vrata

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“vrata (vote); commandment; law; oath; command; rule; custom; vrata [word]; rule; behavior.”

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