Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 2.28.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒दं क॒वेरा॑दि॒त्यस्य॑ स्व॒राजो॒ विश्वा॑नि॒ सान्त्य॒भ्य॑स्तु म॒ह्ना । अति॒ यो म॒न्द्रो य॒जथा॑य दे॒वः सु॑की॒र्तिं भि॑क्षे॒ वरु॑णस्य॒ भूरे॑: ॥
इदं कवेरादित्यस्य स्वराजो विश्वानि सान्त्यभ्यस्तु मह्ना । अति यो मन्द्रो यजथाय देवः सुकीर्तिं भिक्षे वरुणस्य भूरेः ॥
idaṃ kaver ādityasya svarājo viśvāni sānty abhy astu mahnā | ati yo mandro yajathāya devaḥ sukīrtim bhikṣe varuṇasya bhūreḥ ||

English translation:

“(The worshipper repeats) this praise of the sage; the self-radiant Āditya; may he preside over all beings by his power; I beg for fame of the sovereign Varuṇa, a deity who, when much plural ased (is propitious) to hsi adorer.”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): kūrmo gārtsamado gṛtsamado vā [kūrma gārtsamada gṛtsamada vā];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): varuṇaḥ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

इ॒दम् । क॒वेः । आ॒दि॒त्यस्य॑ । स्व॒ऽराजः॑ । विश्वा॑नि । सन्ति॑ । अ॒भि । अ॒स्तु॒ । म॒ह्ना । अति॑ । यः । म॒न्द्रः । य॒जथा॑य । दे॒वः । सु॒ऽकी॒र्तिम् । भि॒क्षे॒ । वरु॑णस्य । भूरेः॑ ॥
इदम् । कवेः । आदित्यस्य । स्वराजः । विश्वानि । सन्ति । अभि । अस्तु । मह्ना । अति । यः । मन्द्रः । यजथाय । देवः । सुकीर्तिम् । भिक्षे । वरुणस्य । भूरेः ॥
idam | kaveḥ | ādityasya | sva-rājaḥ | viśvāni | santi | abhi | astu | mahnā | ati | yaḥ | mandraḥ | yajathāya | devaḥ | su-kīrtim | bhikṣe | varuṇasya | bhūreḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.28.1 English analysis of grammar]

idaṃ < idam

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

kaver < kaveḥ < kavi

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“poet; wise man; bard; Venus; Uśanas; kavi [word]; Kavi; prophet; guru; Brahma.”

ādityasya < āditya

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sun; Aditya; Surya; āditya [word].”

svarājo < sva


“own(a); respective(a); akin(p); sva [word]; individual; present(a); independent.”

svarājo < rājaḥ < rāj

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“king; best; rāj; rāj [word].”

viśvāni < viśva

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“all(a); whole; complete; each(a); viśva [word]; completely; wholly.”

sānty < sānti < as

[verb noun], accusative, plural

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

abhy < abhī < abhi


“towards; on.”

astu < as

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”

mahnā < mahan

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter




“very; excessively; beyond; excessively.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

mandro < mandraḥ < mandra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“pleasant; eloquent; dulcet.”

yajathāya < yajatha

[noun], dative, singular, masculine


devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

sukīrtim < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sukīrtim < kīrtim < kīrti

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“fame; fame; glory; kīrti [word]; mention.”

bhikṣe < bhikṣ < √bhaj

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“beg; beg.”

varuṇasya < varuṇa

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Varuna; varuṇa [word]; Crataeva religiosa Forst.; Varuṇa; varuṇādi.”

bhūreḥ < bhūri

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“much; many; much(a); abundant; rich; mighty; distinguished.”

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