Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 2.4.7

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

स यो व्यस्था॑द॒भि दक्ष॑दु॒र्वीं प॒शुर्नैति॑ स्व॒युरगो॑पाः । अ॒ग्निः शो॒चिष्माँ॑ अत॒सान्यु॒ष्णन्कृ॒ष्णव्य॑थिरस्वदय॒न्न भूम॑ ॥
स यो व्यस्थादभि दक्षदुर्वीं पशुर्नैति स्वयुरगोपाः । अग्निः शोचिष्माँ अतसान्युष्णन्कृष्णव्यथिरस्वदयन्न भूम ॥
sa yo vy asthād abhi dakṣad urvīm paśur naiti svayur agopāḥ | agniḥ śociṣmām̐ atasāny uṣṇan kṛṣṇavyathir asvadayan na bhūma ||

English translation:

“He who is in many plural ces, who spreads over the whole earth, like an animal without a herdsman, that goes according to its own will; Agni, the bright-shining, consuming the dry bushes, by whom the pain of blackness (is inflicted on the trees), entirely drinks up (their moisture).”


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): somāhutirbhārgavaḥ [somāhutirbhārgava];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ ;
Chandas (meter): ārṣīpaṅkti;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

सः । यः । वि । अस्था॑त् । अ॒भि । धक्ष॑त् । उ॒र्वीं । प॒शुः । न । ए॒ति॒ । स्व॒ऽयुः । अगो॑पाः । अ॒ग्निः । शो॒चिष्मा॑न् । अ॒त॒सानि॑ । उ॒ष्णन् । कृ॒ष्णऽव्य॑थिः । अ॒स्व॒द॒य॒त् । न । भूम॑ ॥
सः । यः । वि । अस्थात् । अभि । धक्षत् । उर्वीं । पशुः । न । एति । स्वयुः । अगोपाः । अग्निः । शोचिष्मान् । अतसानि । उष्णन् । कृष्णव्यथिः । अस्वदयत् । न । भूम ॥
saḥ | yaḥ | vi | asthāt | abhi | dhakṣat | urvīṃ | paśuḥ | na | eti | sva-yuḥ | agopāḥ | agniḥ | śociṣmān | atasān | yuṣṇan | kṛṣṇa-vyathiḥ | asvadayat | na | bhūma

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 2.4.7 English analysis of grammar]

sa < tad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

yo < yaḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”

vy < vi


“apart; away; away.”

asthād < asthāt < sthā

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“stay; stand; situate; exist; [in]; resist; endure; put; soak; be; stop; adhere; get stale; concentrate; grow; trust; wake; consociate; last; dwell; lie; stand; stop.”



“towards; on.”

dakṣad < dakṣat < dah

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“burn; cauterize; heat; burn; burn; burn; roast; blaze; burn; distress; destroy.”

urvīm < urvī

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Earth; floor; land; heaven and earth; urvī; pṛthivī; kingdom.”

paśur < paśuḥ < paśu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“domestic animal; sacrificial animal; animal; cattle; Paśu; stupid; Paśu; herd; goat.”

naiti < < na


“not; like; no; na [word].”

naiti < eti < i

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“go; travel; enter (a state); return; walk; continue; reach; ask.”

svayur < svayuḥ < svayu

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

agopāḥ < a


“not; akāra; a [taddhita]; a [word]; a; a.”

agopāḥ < gopāḥ < gopā

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“herder; defender.”

agniḥ < agni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

śociṣmāṃ < śociṣmat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

atasāny < atasāni < atasa

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

“shrub; scrub.”

uṣṇan < uṣ

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“burn; punish.”

kṛṣṇavyathir < kṛṣṇa


“black; dark; dark; blue; black.”

kṛṣṇavyathir < vyathiḥ < vyathis

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

asvadayan < asvadayat < svaday < √svad

[verb], singular, Imperfect




“not; like; no; na [word].”

bhūma < bhūman

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“Earth; floor.”

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